2.HSC Golden Advice
3.a. Topic 3 Pericles syllabus
b. family background and education
c. early political career
d. role as strategos and politician
e. sites
f. a dozen relevant documents
g. Pericles and democracy
h. list of useful texts
i. Pericles building program -site and notes
j. useful quotes -modern and ancient
k. Pericles and the Golden Age of Athens
l. evaluation of Pericles -modern and ancient sources
m. past papers
4. Agrippina II comments and sites
5. a. Historical Period -Greece 500-440 BC
b. syllabus
c. sites and documents
d. Hoplites and phalanx
e. more documents and sites
f. Battle of Plataea
g. sample essay -Athens and Sparta contribution to Persian Wars
h. documents
i. Delian League to Athenian Empire
j. past papers
6. Historical Fiction and Great Movie Ideas

1. The Original Idea behind CarnoGold was to allow MY special students to have that Special Advantage that
separated them from the rest of the state and also the other "evil" students at school.
These gems are assembled from my VAST experience teaching and marking this subject
“….when I started teaching it, it was called Modern History…”
Small drum roll- baddoom tch

Thus any tantalising little facts or notes that qualify for CarnoGold will be in this colour. PC

HSC Topics -syllabus "dot points" , documents, comments, notes and useful sites

if you want a hard copy of

2.The Ancient History HSC
Golden Advice

How to maximise your marks
  • Ask questions and be involved in discussions
  • Peer marking ,help each other with sample answers or assignments
  • Swap sample essays with friends and leave your ego out of it
  • Match your notes to syllabus dot points
  • Reword dot points into questions
  • Write practice responses under dot point headings
  • Remember term IV year 11 is part of your HSC year.
  • You have your biggest (and last big ) break in 12 months to organise your notes on this topic (Pompeii )
  • Remember - Next year we are doing 3 NEW TOPICS!!!!!!
  • Do not make the mistake of thinking
I’ve got 5 or 6 weeks off, time to relax.”
The time to relax is AFTER the Final Exam in November 2009.
  • Do NOT waste this opportunity to deal properly with what is regarded as the
Hardest Topic in the HSC by many students.
(5 weeks revision time)
  • Maintain an effective study diary with all assessment tasks set out clearly
  • Note very clearly the dates for formal assessment tasks
  • Plan your time carefully so you are not rushed and doing 4 weeks work in 1.
  • When you get assignments back, unless you are happy with the maximum marks available, resubmit a
“better version” when you have received adequate teacher feedback from me.
If you are not sure or satisfied ASK ME about it.
  • If you are not sure how you could do better in this task keep asking me until you are clear
  • Work in class assessment dates for me and meet these deadlines
  • Co-operation with your teacher is very important, NEVER adopt the attitude that “if it’s not
compulsory I won’t bother”
  • Go over each lesson at home and write the most important 5 things you learned
  • Look at the big picture at the end of each week
  • Which syllabus areas did you target?
  • Which can you tick off as covered
  • Do a practice response using your notes and hand in for marking
  • Make yourself very familiar with past papers

Good ReSources
  • CarnoGold –YOUR OWN SITE !!!!!
“HSC Hard Core” ,"Spartan Society" and “HSC Ancient” sections –a plethora
of other useful sites ,worksheets, past papers and specialised exclusive information - as you can see!!!!!
  • Board of Studies –The official site
  • NSW History Teachers Association –( HTA ) see me for membership number if required
  • Macquarie University- excellent seminars –see site for dates
  • Sydney University – excellent seminars –see site for dates
  • Boredofstudies.org –has an online community of students and teachers
  • Charles Sturt University –students online site

The Paper Itself
  • Make yourself intimately familiar with past papers
  • Each section of the HSC is worth 25 marks. I believe that in an exam situation you are freshest earlier and
recommend doing the Historical period section first.
It is the only single question essay although there will be some degree of internal choice.
  • The Core, Society and Personality questions are usually never more than 12 marks for different parts of
the question so you may be better off doing them last when time may be a problem. 3 hours can go fast.
  • Make sure you know the difference between the KEY QUESTION WORDS such as “explain” and “analyze” and “describe” etc
  • Don’t waste time in Historical Periods (Topic4) doing/planning a “Describe” question.
  • (Those types of questions are for the Core and Society sections.
  • You should look at “Assess” or something like that (see past papers)
  • Don’t waste time writing essays about the Core when the sections are short answer and source analysis
  • Always refer to a source specifically if you are given it in a question
1st describe it, then give some interpretation of your own and make sure you address the source to the question.
  • Even one sentence saying “this is an example of (whatever ) and was common at the time….” is better than nothing
  • To enhance your mark provide an example of a Similar source from your own knowledge
  • Have a range of “favourite” quotes for each topic if you can
  • Remember you are doing these 4 questions ONLY.
    1. Core –Pompeii and Herculaneum 25 marks

3 sections 7: 8: 10 marks
    1. Society – Option I –Sparta to 371 BC 25 marks
4 sections 2:3:8:12 marks
    1. Personality –Option G –Pericles
2 sections 10:15 marks
    1. Historical Period- Option H- Greece:
The Greek world 500 – 440 BC
Choose 1 of 2 essays worth 25 marks

  • 3.Personality-
  • Pericles
  • pericles.jpg

  • Option G

1 Historical context
  • 1a Geography, topography and resources of Athens, Attica and the Athenian empire
  • 1b Overview of the development of Athenian democracy
  • 1c Overview of Athenian social, religious and economic structures

2 Background and rise to prominence
  • 2a Family background and education
  • 2b Early political career to 460 BC

3 Career
  • 3a Democratic reforms and policies
  • 3b Military career
  • 3c Building program
  • 3d Roles as general (strategos) and politician
  • 3e Methods of maintaining leadership and influence
  • 3f Promotion of Athenian imperialism
  • 3g Role and influence in the development of Athens, the ‘Golden Age’
  • 3h Relationships with prominent individuals: Aspasia, Ephialtes, Pheidias
  • 3i Role in the Peloponnesian War (431 BC): causes, strategies and leadership
  • 3j Manner and impact of his death

4 Evaluation
  • 4a Impact and influence on his time
  • 4b Assessment of his life and career
  • 4c Legacy
  • 4d Ancient and modern images and interpretations of Pericles.

A very impressive PowerPoint Presentation that will be shown in class is
inserted here

revised after HSC marking 18/11/10

2a The relevance and significance of his personal background, social position and status including family and education
· Family Background and Education
- Born 490 BC
- Tribe: Acamantis
- Deme: Cholargus
- he was descended on both sides from the noblest lineage in Athens’ (Plutarch)
- Father: Xanthippus belonged to a prominent political family and was a rising politician who defeated the Persians at Mycale while serving as strategos, 479
- Mother: Agariste was a member of the famous Alcmaeonid family, long involved in the political history of Athens
- Cleisthenes was Pericles’ great uncle

The Persian Invasions
- Greece 490 and 480-470 BC
- Greeks were victorious over the stronger Persian forces- led to patriotism
- Athenians played a prominent part in the success- able to capitalise on this spirit via the astuteness of political leaders such as Themistocles and Aristides
- Delian League, 478- all the island states who wanted protection from Persia- allowed Athenians to assume a political and diplomatic role in the Aegean
- Pericles had to evacuate Athens in the wake of the Persian invasion- politically active family- biased opinion regarding the greatness of Athens
- Athenian success= possibility of imperial exploitation and a means of ensuring a political career
- Post war- Athens and its popular politicians became too preoccupied with the great military matters of the day to concentrate on further Democratic reform

- Educated by the several of the most influential and controversial thinkers of the age
- Damon – music, poetry etc.
- probably due to him that Pericles entered Politics as a radical
- ostracised for being an intriguer and supporter of tyranny
- Zeno - lessons in rhetoric: the study of debating and arguing
- Anaxagoras- taught him dignity of spirit and a nobility of utterance … also a composure of countenance.
- Under his guidance, Pericles learnt to rise above the orators who deliberately said what the crowd wanted to hear in order to win popularity
- Learned to rise above the common fear of the supernatural
- Traditional education- training in rhetoric, oratory and philosophy, recital of epic poems as well as appreciation of music and gymnastics.

2b Early Political Career
Development of Democracy
(508-433BC) Cleisthenes- enlisted the support of the masses by promising to give them political power.
His reforms created ten new tribal divisions in which all citizens were redistributed based upon where they lived, not on family connections as previously.
This was designed to break up the political power of the aristocrats.
Created the Boule, increased the power of the Ecclesia and the Heliaea

Ephialtes 468-67.
Under him the Areopagus lost: the power to punish magistrates for misconduct, the power
to supervise the administration of the state, the duty of seeming that the laws were obeyed, and the right to investigate the lives of private citizens.
These powers were transferred to the Boule, the Ecclesia and the Heliaea.
Leaving the Areopagus with only its powers of jurisdiction over cases of intentional homicide and the supervision of religious ceremonies. Ephialtes was assassinated in 462-61, Pericles succeeded him.

Aristides (530?-467? BC)- introduced in 487 a decree to the Ecclesia whereby five hundred candidates from those citizens ‘eligible’ were elected, fifty from each tribe, as candidates for selection by lot for the archon’s positions.
He also increased the number of citizens ‘eligible’ for the archonship and increased the power of the
Ecclesia, reducing the power of the aristocracy.
He introduced Ostracism and increased the ‘Council of 400’ to 500.

484-469 BC
saw the rise and fall of the most famous names in Athenian political history, e.g. Themistocles,
Aristides and Cimon- their political activities and ideas would have affected Pericles’ political outlook, without their reforms Pericles would not have been able to build up the Empire

Plutarch- he was shy as a young man. The fact that he was rich and that he came of a distinguished family and possessed exceedingly powerful friends made the fear of ostracism very real to him, and at the beginning he took no part in politics but devoted himself to soldiering, in which he showed great daring and enterprise.-

he served with
Cimon and the Delian League fleet
470’s/60’s- Aristides dead, Themistocles in exile and Cimon frequently absent on distant campaigns- Pericles attached himself to the people’s party and took up the cause of the poor and many (rather than the rich and few) despite his aristocratic background

Afraid of being suspected of aiming at a dictatorship because he continually took the office of strategos-
Recognizedthat Cimon supported and was admired by the aristocratic party-
began to ingratiate (suck up to) himself with the people as a way of securing power against his rival and preserving his ambitions of leadership.

He had many opponents but they were never able to match the admiration and awe the common people held for him

3d Role as a Strategos and Politician
· The office of strategos was seen as the key political position at this time
· 10 generals elected annually- one from each tribe
· commanded military and naval expeditions
· could conduct preliminary negotiations with foreign states
· could convene the Ecclesia and give advice
· responsible to the Ecclesia and could only act under its instructions
· subject to public scrutiny- could be brought to trial, fined or ostracised
- Pericles was fined and removed from office in 431 the people blamed him for persuading them to undertake the
Peloponnesian War
· Pericles was elected 16 times, 15 times in a row

a word of warning about some sites - for example here is a tertiary course that has a very good introduction .....
  • 3d Pericles’ roles as general (strategos) and politician

The government of Athens in the time of Pericles is usually regarded as the best example of direct demokratia
The word demokratia comes from a combination of two Greek words; demos (people) and kratein (to rule).
Demokratia therefore means government by the people.

Pericles was first and foremost an Athenian citizen. He was a member of the upper classes but had the same rights and privileges as every other Athenian citizen. This meant he could vote and stand for election to any of the magistracies in Athens.

(Aristotle, a Greek fourth century philosopher who wrote “The Athenian Constitution”, claims there were
700 magistracies.) He could also participate in the Heliaea (people’s court) or Boule (council) if selected by lot and in the Ecclesia (assembly).

The magistracy that Pericles did stand for was that of strategos. This had become the main political position in Athens at this time. Although the primary function of the strategos was to be a military general, he could also call meetings of the Ecclesia and give political advice.

Like all the magistrates, the strategos had to undergo public scrutiny. This meant he could be brought to trial or fined if the Athenians suspected him of any wrong doing in relation to his work.
In 431-30 BC Pericles was fined and removed from office because Athenian citizens were upset about the hardships they had to face during those first two years of
the Peloponnesian War.

Another way of removing a magistrate from office was via ostracism (exile from Attica for ten years). Some famous Athenians were ostracised; the historian Thucydides and Pericles’ father, Xanthippus, among them. Pericles was never ostracised.

Even though Pericles was an Athenian citizen who held his position constitutionally, Thucydides still wrote:
“So, in what was nominally a democracy, power was really in the hands of the first citizen.” (Thucydides 2, 65)

Earlier in the same passage Thucydides wrote:

“The reason for this was that Pericles, because of his position, his intelligence, and his known integrity, could respect
the liberty of the people and at the same time hold them in check. It was he who led them, rather than they who led
him........” (Thucydides 2. 65)

Under Pericles the Athenian government became more democratic than it had been previously.

Pericles’ importance to Athens in summed up by Thucydides:

“..it was under him that Athens’ was at her greatest”
(Thucydides 2. 65)

slaves in Ancient Athens

Ancient Greek farming

surprisingly easy to read.Recommended .


soundbyte from "7 year itch"

and in

student , she tells her side to the story

some fairly predictable essay questions

  • [[file:Pericles summary.doc]]- good facts and sources as well as

history of Greece at this time ,going on to the end of the Peloponnesian Wars

  • 3g a slow but modern Greek inspired comprehensive video study of the city of Athens is the "Treasures of Ancient Greece" which features monuments of the Acropolis.
It is NOT favourable to Lord Elgin.( History Ch)

3a 3f 3g 3i How Pericles impacted the
Athenian Government in the early
stages of democracy
Pericles became the most influential politician and general in Athens from the late 450s until his death in c.430-29.
Family background-he was from the prominent noble Alkmeonidae family which gave him status and privilege.
He was closely involved in the democratic reforms of Ephialtes which successfully weakened the power of the Areopagus and transferred it to the demos , thus installing the final phase of direct democracy.
He succeeded both Cimon and Ephialtes (who was assassinated) as the most prominent statesman in Athens and proponent of democracy.
He was to move democracy further along and make it more participatory by the introduction of state payment for service (e.g. in the navy and military and for jury service), thus increasing his popularity with the lower classes.
As a military leader, he was consistently successful in campaigns against Athens' enemies as well as recalcitrant members of the Delian League, as demonstrated by his re-election for 12 or so successive years.
He was a strong supporter of imperialism and anti-Spartan and was the acknowledged leader of Athens when the Peloponnesian War broke out in 432-1 and the early years of conflict.
His Funeral Speech, as recorded by Thucydides, gives a good indication of the influence of his rhetoric and is propagandist.
It also strongly affirms the Athenians' imperialist philosophy as well as justifying it.
Before his death, he is recorded as counselling the Athenians against arrogance and overextending their empire and warns the people/demos against irresponsible leadership and recklessness.
He died as a result of the plague c. 428-7 and his loss robbed the Athenians of his more moderate guidance.
A new type of leader was to emerge after C. 425 (called "demagogues"-literally "shit-stirrers") who ignored Pericles' warnings and led Athens to ignominious defeat.

Some useful sources:
Thucydides, A History of the Peloponnesian War
Plutarch, Life of Pericles
Meiggs, The Athenian Empire
Jones, AHM, Athenian Democracy
Kagan, Donald, anything about the Athenian Empire or Peloponnesian War
Hammond, NGL, A History of Ancient Greece
Ehrenberg, Victor, From Solon to Socrates
Bowra, A, Periclean Athens
Lots of sites online. HTA Internet Ancient History Sourcebook is a must!! Great for all topics!

  • The most ambitious building program in Greek history, the building of the Parthenon was Pericles'
greatest triumph and he oversaw the project personally.
  • Costing 5000 talents in the first year alone - a figure equivalent to some $3 billion in today's money -
the building was completed in less than 15 years, despite attempts to derail the projects by
Pericles' political opponents.
  • Made from 20 thousand tons of marble quarried from nearby Mount Pentelicus, the huge cost of the
building was partly financed from the treasury of the Delian League, which caused great resentment
among many of Athens' allies, who were to be the source of many future troubles...

A selection of Great Quotes
soundbyte from "Monty Python and the Holy Grail"


  • "She needs no poet to sing her praises; every land and every sea can furnish proofs of her enterprise and

  • Her enemies when defeated are not disgraced; her subjects confess that she is worthy to rule them."

Of Athens' dead he says:

  • "To men who fall as they have fallen death is no evil."

Other Quotes
  • "For the whole Earth is the Sepulchre of famous men; and their story is not graven only on Stone over their
native earth, but lives on far away, without visible symbol, woven into the stuff of other men's lives."

Pericles on the eve of war.

  • "Nor is it any longer possible for you to give up this empire . . . Your empire is now like a tyranny: it may
have been wrong to take it; it is certainly dangerous to let it go."

  • "But the bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike,
and yet notwithstanding go out to meet it." Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War

  • "Freedom is the sure possession of those alone who have the courage to defend it."

  • "Future ages will wonder at us, as the present age wonders at us now."

  • "If Athens shall appear great to you, consider then that her glories were purchased by valiant men, and by men who learned their duty."

  • "Instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all."

  • "Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics won't take an interest in you."

  • "Make up your mind that happiness depends on being free, and freedom depends on being courageous."

  • "Time is the king of all men, he is their parent and their grave, and gives them what he will and not what they crave."

  • "Wait for that wisest of all counsellors, Time."

3g Pericles’ role in the development of the Golden
Age of Athens.

for your hard copy soundbyte from "Dumb and Dumber"
Worth 10 marks
  • Pericles was one of the most influential statesmen in the history of Athens
  • Pericles did not rule directly over the people as a dictator, he used his eloquent speaking ability and keen
sense of judgment to gain support for his plans and programs in the city of Athens.
  • Pericles made use of his words to bring about change and encourage prosperity of Athens.
  • Meanwhile, Pericles was already experiencing great success, having gained the position of statesmen
around 460 B.C.
  • He made a bold move by shifting his loyalties from the noble families who ruled Athens to the common
citizens of Athens, urging the participation of all citizens in the government.
  • In 450 B.C., he successfully oversaw the ostracism, or elected exile, of his main political rival, General
  • Several years later, Athens made peace with the Persians and various other rival Greek cities.
  • Having dealt with enemies both within and without, Pericles could bring about many changes to the
Athenian government and improvements to the city of Athens.
  • The city had suffered great damage during the Persian Wars, much of Pericles’s work involved rebuilding of
the city.
  • Pericles gave the task of rebuilding to many of the poorer citizens of Athens; while he favoured helping the
poor, he sought to do so by giving them occupations rather than merely granting them charity.
  • Many of the beautiful structures of Athens were built during this time, but most of the work focused on the
rebuilding and repairing of temples, including the Acropolis.
  • One of the more splendid temples built during this time was the Parthenon, a beautiful piece of architecture
that served as the jewel of Athens for many years.
  • While the city of Athens flourished greatly under Pericles in a material sense, Pericles also brought about
change to the flow of Athenian government.
  • One of his early reforms was a new standard for citizenship; in order to become a citizen, one had to have
two parents of Athenian birth as a requirement.
  • This new policy favoured the common citizens, seeing as how the well-travelled aristocrats and merchants
tended to marry foreigners more often.
  • Another measure Pericles took, this time through the popular vote of the city, was the practice of paying
members of a jury for their time served.
  • This benefited the lower classes, who could now afford to take time off from their other occupations to
serve in the Athenian judicial system.
  • Overall, the Golden Age of Pericles was a period of time in which the city became more and more of a
  • Owing to the vast expenses of Pericles’ projects, Athens was compelled to rely on tribute money from its weaker Greek allies.
  • This caused a great deal of annoyance on the part of the allies, who were paying the tribute to Athens for military purposes, not for domestic affairs.
  • The allies of Athens grew ever more resentful of Athens’ prosperity at their expense.
  • While Pericles effectively used diplomatic channels to stave off massive war for thirty years, conflict still loomed on the horizon.
  • Occasionally, an ally would revolt against Athens, such as the city of Samos in 440, and although Athens’ superior navy managed to crush such efforts, tensions still were on the rise.
  • While Athens may have had a superior navy, its army could not compare to the well-disciplined Spartan soldiers.
  • As a result, many of the rural citizens of Athenian territory were forced to flee into the city, and when a plague struck the city, the crowded conditions made the disease have a disastrous effect.
  • Pericles himself received much of the blame for the war and its accompanying problems, and was eventually removed from office around 429 B.C.
  • Though he soon managed to regain his position as statesman, he would not live to make any further reforms.
  • Soon after his re-election, he died of the plague that had struck the city.

4a 4b 4c 4d With reference to ancient and modern sources,
evaluate Pericles life and career.
( for your hard copy ) see

Main question -worth 15 marks Ancient Sources
Thucydides, who wrote at the same time that Pericles lived, in fifth century BC, greatly admired Pericles’
leadership, believing that Athens ‘was at its greatest under him’.
He believed that he ‘could respect the liberty of the people, and at the same time, hold them in check.

It was he who led them, rather than they who led him, and since he never sought power from any wrong motive, he was under no necessity of flattering them, in fact he was so highly respected that he was able to speak angrily to them and to contradict them.’.

Plato is an ancient source who is more cynical in his interpretation of Pericles.
He contradicts Thucydides, believing that Pericles’ leadership was achieved by manipulating the demos
(common people).
Plutarch, wrote in the first and second centuries AD, was also a great admirer of Pericles.
He wrote that one of Pericles’ political strategies was that he ‘took care not to make himself too familiar a figure…but reserved himself… for great occasions, and allowed friends and other public speakers to deal with less important matters.’
Plutarch’s interpretation is of a man who lived nearly six centuries before him,
Similarly, Plutarch wrote that the love (of Pericles and Aspasia) was of a more ‘erotic kind’.

Various modern and ancient sources have interpreted Pericles’ public and private image differently.
Modern sources, interpret Pericles’ behaviour as conceited or a clever political strategy.
Ancient and modern sources view various incidents, recorded by Plutarch, in different ways.
One particular incident which sources draw on to interpret Pericles’ personality is the time when his son borrowed money from a friend because he believed that Pericles did not give him enough and then Pericles refused to pay the money back and took his son to court.

While many sources interpret this behaviour as ‘stingy’, Donald Kagan has interpreted Pericles as being
indifferent to money, and leading a modest social life without great expenditures.
Kagan has also criticised Pericles for his ‘failure to make his sons men of outstanding virtue and achievement’.
In contrast to these negative interpretations, many modern sources, such as Chester Starr, admire Pericles.
Starr wrote; ‘Pericles was incorruptible… a masterful speaker and a clear thinker.’
Ancient sources such as Eupolis also admire him for his skills in rhetoric, ‘in eloquence no man could equal him’.
Plutarch too, believed that Pericles had ‘a dignity of spirit and nobility of utterance… also a composure of countenance… which deeply impressed his audience’. He also wrote that ‘despite the immense power he wielded, he had never given way to feelings of envy or hatred and had treated no man as so irreconcilable an enemy that he could never become his friend.’
An example Plutarch uses to re-enforce this argument is the day which a man apparently followed Pericles around all day, insulting him. Apparently, when Pericles reached home in the dark he ordered a servant to light a torch and see the man home.
Kagan interprets this as a ‘striking display of the restrain and good manners of a nobleman and the detachment of a philosopher.’ This incident has also been interpreted by some sources as a display of his presumptuous, arrogant and haughty nature.

Kagan assumes a heroic interpretation of Pericles; ‘Pericles worked consistently to resist the desires of ambitious expansionists and avoid undue risks. He plainly believed that intelligence and reason could restrain unruly passions,maintain the empire at its current size, and use its revenues for a different, safer, possibly even greater glory than the Greeks had yet known.’

Written extensively about Pericles’ private life.
Pericles was married to an Athenian girl, however he divorced her and married his mistress Aspasia.

Kagan believes that Pericles ‘loved her dearly and passionately’.
Interpreted Pericles’ social life as stimulating and unusual for the time, writing that he had a ‘wide circle of friends and acquaintances’.
Most modern historians, John Thornley and Chester Starr, saw Pericles as a great leader who was very popular with the people.
The favourable way, in which the ancient sources have depicted his image, making him a hero for Athens because they were writing for entertainment and not attempting to give an unbiased or entirely factual account of his image.

Some sort of assessment must be made of his period of rule
· His period of rule is known as the Golden age of Athens between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars
· Pericles building program transformed Athens permanently into the greatest city of its age
· Pericles extended democracy to the poorest citizens , guaranteeing a social development that was progressive and
affected the rest of the Ancient World
· Taught Athens a new patriotism that combined the state gods with a faith in Athens
· He wanted Athens to be the “School for Hellas”
· Art, literature and architecture flourished during his period
· Athens became extremely successful and wealthy in these years

· Went to war against other Greeks e.g. revolt of Delian League members
· Arrogant and showed contempt for others, egotistical
· Too much influence and power. Plutarch “everything was left to Pericles’ discretion”
· Re-elected year after year never had to account for his previous year as strategos
· Dangerously optimistic
· Encouraged Athenian nationalism at expense of pan-Hellenism
· Precipitated Peloponnesian War
· Fell in love with and lived with a young (hetaira) prostitute at the cost of his own wife and the affection of his sons
· Butt of many Athenian comedies – often satirised as “The Olympian”
· Charged with impiety for putting reason and logic before religion and tradition
· Held too restrictive views of the role of women in society

A very useful article by Dr Siegel on Pericles

Also see this site Biography of Pericles

Past papers
2006 HSC

(a) Describe Pericles’ rise to prominence. 10 marks
(b) Evaluate Pericles’ role in the development of Athens’ ‘Golden Age’. 15 marks
2007 HSC
Question 20 25 marks
(a) Describe Pericles’ relationship with the Athenians. 10 marks
(b) Assess the achievements of Pericles. 15 marks

Agrippina Minor

4. Agrippina II
as a gesture of goodwill to the students studying Agrippina the Younger , I have some things for you

A less than complimentary review of “Antony and Cleopatra” by Colleen McCullough

Despite the flaws mentioned above. I have found it a fascinating view of the early Empire

through the experiences of the Very Very Late Republic.
For a number of reasons I will recommend this book only to students who love reading Historical Fiction.

According to McCullough a grandfather of the historian Plutarch was conscripted into the very unpopular
forced labour brigades ,carrying supplies across 80km of rugged mountain terrain for Mark Antony's forces
before the Battle of Actium.The stories he told his family formed the core for his grandson's later "Parallel Lives".
This may be true.

For a background to the Ahenobarbus family and the reason Suetonius calls the father of Nero a man
utterly detestable in every aspect of his life” yet he was at the pinnacle of Roman aristocracy.
from (Suetonius, Nero, 5). quoted in .... Ancient Rome. - Ancient Personalities- A.J Koutsoukis.)
His Antonine and other earlier connections were like a stench to some.
That is not taking into consideration his own personal odiousness.

The chronic need in the Roman psyche to find another hero of the stature of the Divine Julius

  • Caesar Ptolemy or Caesarion- for supporters of Mark Antony only
  • Mark Antony
  • Augustus himself
  • The Grandsons of Augustus
  • Drusus
  • Germanicus
  • Sons of Germanicus –only Caligula reaching the purple
  • In desperation –Claudius
This reminds me of a similar search in the United States for descendants of John Kennedy to carry the torch.

A fascinating view of Roman institutions, religion, political offices, food and culture etc.
It is almost obsessively researched and has many other details and references.
I have a copy myself and will lend it if you promise to return it.

Some sites you can look at include


Agrippina II coin

and if you want to follow the numismatics of her career see Agrippina Coins

I was very pleasantly surprised to come across a site Suetonius' Blog that has been put together by an old friend of mine.
I also have hard copies for the first student to ask me

5. Historical Period
-Option H Greece:

The Greek world 500 – 440 BC

Principal Focus: Through an investigation of the archaeological and written sources for the
Greek world 500 – 440 BC, students learn about significant developments, forces and
relevant historiographical issues that shaped the historical period.

1 Persian Wars
1a origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt
1b invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades
1c inter-war period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece
1d invasion of 480–479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium,
Salamis, Plataea and Mycale
1e role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades
1f reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat
2 Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire
2a Delian League: origins, aims, organisation and activities to the Battle of the Eurymedon River; role and contribution of Cimon and Aristides the Just
2b transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian empire
2c nature of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies
2d key democratic developments: influence of the thetes, ostracism,
citizenship law
3 Athens and Sparta
3a impact of Persian Wars
3b nature, composition and activities of the Peloponnesian League:
Spartan responses to Athenian imperialism

if you want to look at an easy site seeThe Real 300- Herodotus' Tale

and remember the famous words "improbus tyrannus quod quadruplator es nunquam exspectata hic"
Spartan Phalanx

For an interesting background of Athens see
This site is actually for the Historical period 800-500 BC but for some "crossover aspects" on democracy
and the earlier history of Athens -it might prove interesting.

Herodotus' Histories


from the Ionian Revolt to the end of the Persian War

1f Hoplites and the Phalanx

The Phalanx was made of wealthy men. They did not train very often (although they were better trained than any
non-Greek enemy) - a sort of weekend soldier - and therefore the Phalanx was perfect for them as little other
tactics were necessary to learn.

As the various Greek tribes and city-states discovered the superiority of the Phalanx,
it became the number one fighting formation for all Greek states who had individuals rich
enough to afford the armour.The Hoplite was close to invincible from the front because
of the weight of the Phalanx, body armour and reach of their weapons, they did not have
it all their own way. The Phalanx itself had weaknesses which the Greeks were aware of
and at all times tried to fix while they fought.

In particular, they were aware that the sides of the Phalanx were vulnerable and of the two, it was the RIGHT
side which was worst because it was on that side that there was no shield overlapping from a friend's !!!
As a result, Phalanx' which were moving forward tended to drift to the right as men tried to move right and avoid
an enemy who was in front of them but might be able to strike at their UNshielded sides. So afraid were the
Greeks of this side that their commanders and Generals had to stand as the last man on the right to command
the soldiers so that by his bravery for taking the right side, the Greek soldiers were given courage to move
forward and fight. In many battles of the period, whole armies would drift right as they marched before an enemy!

In addition, they also feared fast moving enemy who could quickly move around or behind the Phalanx' flanks.
In particular, they feared the fastest moving troop of all - CAVALRY (horsemen). Cavalry was not powerful
enough to assault the Phalanx from the front but if there was room, they could ride around and attack the sides and rear of the slow moving Phalanx.

Again, many battles of the period show the Greeks as refusing to fight on roomy, flat countryside when facing enemy cavalry. They stayed on hills and near woods to prevent cavalry having the room to manoeuvre around their sides.

A useful source of information about different military units is at .
This will be very helpful for the next site on Herodotus Book 9

Soundbyte from movie "300"
See for my review of the popular movie "300"
Battle of Plataea
see website
1d 1e 1f 3a http://www.htansw.asn.au/members/memberresources/teachinghistorysupport/HDT/index.html

for an interesting and detailed look at Herodotus Book 9-the Big Battle that really does put Thermopylae
in the shade-the Battle of Plataea

Mardonius -Persian general

they use cute little models like this (Mardonius-Persian general
Phalanx under pressure

1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 3a Sample Essay Plan

'Assess whether the Spartans or
Athenians were more responsible for the Greek victories over the Persians
between 490 and 479 BC.'

  • 490 Marathon-definitely the Athenians. The Spartans were delayed by an important religious festival
(the Carneia) which they had to observe as they were very pious re the gods. They turned up 2-3 days later, but
missed all the action!!
  • The inter-war years: The Athenians were much more active in preparing for a second, and what was,
they believed, an inevitably greater invasion. Themistocles was especially instrumental in warning the Athenians
and other Greek states about this, even sending to the Delphic Oracle for a prediction.
  • Themistocles used revenue from the recently discovered silver mines to build another fleet he regarded
as essential for defence against a coming Persian invasion
  • The Spartans were more concerned about defending the Peloponnese and their own alliance system
and planned to build a wall across the Isthmus at Corinth.
  • The Athenians pushed for a pan-Hellenic congress to discuss the defence of Greece which resulted in
480 at the Isthmus and resulted in the formation of The Greek League/Hellenic League.
  • Although the Greek states of the mainland admired Athens for her victory at Marathon, they looked
for leadership not to her but to Sparta. Athens had no following and her neighbours were hostile.
  • Sparta was the head of a great Alliance: among her followers she counted the neighbours of
Athens-Megara, Aegina and Thebes-and she had a practical and probably a formal alliance with Athens herself.
  • Her influence was thus paramount among the Greek states.
  • At the same time her prestige as a military power and as leader of a military Alliance stood very high
since the crushing defeat of Argos at Sepeia.....
  • The whole problem of any organised resistance to the Persians therefore centred on Sparta."
(N.G.L. Hammond "A History of Greece to 322 B.C."(P. 223)
  • Athens (sea) and Sparta (land) were made joint commanders of the Greek forces, but Sparta was
hegemon (supreme commander.
  • The first naval battle, at Artemisium, was commanded by the Spartan Eurybiades who had no
knowledge or experience of naval warfare. It seems likely that Themistocles really called the shots.
A storm and lots of confusion did not result in a clear victory.
  • At Thermopylae, the Spartans under Leonidas and a small contingent of mixed local Greek states
held up the Persian advance for 3 days, but were annihilated. This did give some time however, to the
Athenians to evacuate their city and surrounding areas, so the sacrifice was a significant achievement.
  • The turning point was Salamis, tactically the brainchild of Themistocles and the Athenian naval
commanders. The large Athenian navy (some 200 triremes) was supplemented by contingents from other
allied states from the mainland and the islands and Asia Minor.
  • It turned the Persian advance back to central Greece. The Spartans and their Peloponnesian allies
were massed at the isthmus to defend the narrow land bridge into the Peloponnese.
  • The final land battle at Plataea was between the remnants of the Persian army (still overwhelmingly
large) and a combined hoplite force of Greek allies. Some states did not show up.
  • Athens did not distinguish itself in this battle as their generals quarrelled with the Spartans, led by
Pausanias, and did not co-operate in the lead-up and early stages of the battle.Their conduct came close to
jeopardising the overwhelming success of the battle.

  • The Spartans were outstanding and showed why they were the leading military power in Greece.
  • This victory drove the Persians from Greece.
  • The final encounter at Mycale, off the coast of Asia Minor where the Greek navy, predominantly
Athenian and Athenian led routed the Persians and drove them away from the Ionian cities.
  • The Spartans did not participate as immediately after Plataea, they returned to the Peloponnese
to secure consolidate their leadership there.
  • Conclude that both Athenians and Spartans played important roles in different ways in different battles.

The more intangible things to consider would be:
-Willingness to defend Greece
-ability to see the bigger picture and put the defence of all of Greece before the interests of a particular polis
or region
-willingness to put differences and animosities aside for the greater good
-willingness to co-operate and consult
-initiative in foreseeing future dangers and preparing for it

  • Hammond, as quoted above.
  • W.G. Forrest, "A History of Sparta"
  • V. Ehrenberg, "From Solon to Socrates"
  • Herodotus, "The Histories"
  • P. Bradley, "Ancient Greece; Using Evidence" (common text)
  • A.R. Burn, "Persia and the Greeks"
  • P. Cartledge, "The Spartans; An Epic History" (very recent
    excellent text, great info on the Persian Wars.)

beautifully our Personality -Pericles

You can't help but have sympathy for poor old Cimon.His heart is in the right place.

2a 2b 2c 2d 3b Assess how the Delian
League transformed into the Athenian
here is your hard copy
and a recent classic

This sort of answer is worth 25 marks

Sources: Plutarch: Rise and Fall of Athens
Thucydides: Peloponnesian War
· Need to continue war against Persia after Salamis; Mycale
· Sparta unsuited to continue effort –Pausanias alienates the allies
· Sparta a land power –Athens most suitable leader in a naval offensive
· Ideal to liberate Ionia ;
· extension to Hellespontine area ;Thrace to secure sea route to Euxine
· Aegean islands needed protection from resurgent Persia
· Greek portion of Asia Minor -Ionia (central Asia Minor) and Caria (south west) could be threatened by
Persia from land
· Delian League a “confederacy of maritime states with guaranteed autonomy and free independent status
· Regular meetings to discuss policy with each member having equal voting rights.
· Athens was president ,organiser and leader influenced policy and decisions
· Voluntary membership
· Tribute assessed by Aristides The Just
· Athens appointed the 10 Hellenotamiae (treasurers of the Greeks) to receive tribute (phoros) from allies
· Athens was leader, commander of the navy of the confederacy. Cimon the commander of the fleet.
· Allies oath (according to Plutarch) swear to maintain the alliance against the Persians .Oath for Athens taken
by Aristides , threw wedges red-hot iron into sea.( Until the metal floated to the surface=a permanent alliance)
· Cimon the leader of the conservative party (policy = maintenance of friendly relations with Sparta and
prosecution of war with Persia)
· Cimon expelled Pausanias from Sestos and Byzantium 476 BC
· Cimon captured Eion near mouth of Strymon river 475 BC and island of Scyros 473 BC
· Brilliant victory over Persians at battle of Eurymedon
· 1st 10 years of active campaigning against Persians and pirates gives members safety and security.
· Beginning of imperialism :
· Carystus in Euboea forced to join D.L. 472 BC
· Naxos and Thasos –compelled to join
· Egyptian expedition 454 BC –disaster –Treasury moved to Athens afterwards
· Death of Cimon 450-449 BC .Pericles makes peace with Persia – Peace of Callias.
Pericles attempts to call pan-Hellenic Congress 449BC – rebuffed by other Greek states
· Athens had nearly all the ships –allies (except Chios ,Samos and Lesbos) sent money
· This meant that the member states were weakened and were easy to subdue if they revolted
· Cleruchies established and provided an Athenian garrison in the member –state
· Revolts put down strongly and democracies imposed
· Free status was sometimes replaced with subject status.
· Tribute payment was strictly enforced
· Local law courts lost power ,cases were sent to be heard in Athens
· Uniform weights and measures enforced
· Naval forces did bring peace –no threat from Persia or from pirates
· Trade encouraged and city of Athens became a very important centre of commerce
· Craftsmen and traders attracted to Athens made a good living
· Peace in the Aegean meant trade now possible with Egypt, Black Sea, Mesopotamia and western
Mediterranean as far as Massilia (Marseilles)
· Athens became the cultural centre of Greece
· Many Athenian allies did NOT revolt ,even during Peloponnesian War
· Decrees for revolting Chalcis and Erythrae required all male citizens to swear an oath not to revolt against
the Athenian demos
· Pericles statement “you now hold your empire down by force, it may have been wrong to take it ;it is certainly
dangerous to let it go
· Short lived attempt by Athens to build a land empire because its military and naval forces were engaged in so
many places at once and also because of the reaction of Sparta and her supporters
· Capture of Naupactus ( on western strategic route to the west )
· Alliance with Argos (Peloponnese) ,Thessaly (northern Greece) and Megara (central Greece ,near Isthmus)
· Capture of Boeotia Phocis and Locris (central Greece)
· Achaean cities gained (Peloponnese)
· Battle of Coronea –loss of Boeotia ,Phocis and Locris
· Plataea and Naupactus only continental allies left to Athens 446BC
· 30 Years Peace signed between Athens and the Peloponnesians 445 BC
· Athenian Empire divided into 5 districts for administration Thrace ; Aegean Islands ;Hellespont ;Ionia and
· 440 BC revolts of Thasos and Byzantium

2c. Nature of Athenian Imperialisms; changing relations with allies.
This is what we were talking about the other day-
  • The Athenians began to “take for granted” the relationship
  • the DL members went from associates to subordinates
  • the payment went from ships ,men and money to just money
  • the DL members began to resent the amount that was spent on the beautification of Athens , the Athenians thought it was fair as they were the main party
  • any DL members who wanted to secede were severely punished –
  • DL rebels after discipline often had to put up with the very unpopular Cleruchies (not unlike the Botany Bay option of 18th C Britain, except these weren’t convicts ,they were just dirt poor and a criminal class)
  • After a while there was not even a pretence of an association as Athens got so “bossy” it regarded the DL as just Athenian territory
  • The rest of the Greek world were very negative about the aggressive imperialism of Athens –enriching and taking advantage of the DL members

3b. Nature, composition and activities of the Peloponnesian League:
  • All states of PL were linked to Sparta but they still had fairly regular meetings
  • Other members included Elis who oversaw the Olympic Games, Tegea etc
  • Though not in Peloponnese ,Thebes was an ally of Sparta and violently opposed to pro-Athenian Plataea in their territory of Boeotia
  • The league was organized with Sparta as the hegemon, ( Leader)
  • It was controlled by the council of allies which was composed of two bodies. The first body was the assembly of Spartiates, and the Congress of Allies in which each allied state had one vote regardless of that state's size or geopolitical power.
  • Most of the states were Dorian and shared an interest in the Olympic Games and the cult of Heracles
  • No tribute was paid except in times of war, when one third of the military of a state could be requested.
  • Only Sparta could call a congress (meeting) of the League.
  • All alliances were made with Sparta only, so the member states had to form their own alliances with each other.
  • During the Persian War meetings held at Corinth coordinated the battle against Persia ,sometimes known as the League of Corinth
  • And although each state had one vote, Sparta was not compelled to abide by any resolutions the League might come to.
  • Thus the Peloponnesian League was not an "alliance" in the strictest sense of the word (nor was it wholly Peloponnesian for the entirety of its existence).
  • The league provided protection and security to its members, and most importantly to Sparta.
  • It was a very stable alliance which supported oligarchies and opposed tyrannies and democracies.
  • “Everyone” in the Peloponnese except Argos were members
  • Main members of rest of Peloponnese were pretty subordinate to Sparta but they rarely set the agenda

Spartan Responses to Athenian imperialism
  • Envy in Sparta at growth of Athenian power”-Thucydides in his introduction
  • Corinth was the main agitator in the PL as they resented the influence and power of Athens
  • Many members of DL had originally been colonies of Corinth and their treatment was upsetting for Corinth
  • Sparta had to be dragged by Corinthian arguments to face Athenian “adventurism”
  • First Peloponnesian War 460-445 between Sparta, Thebes and PL v Athens and DL. A minor war .Athens victorious at sea and in Central Greece for a while
  • Brief period of Athenian land “empire” and early success fiercely resisted by Sparta, Thebes and her PL allies –
  • Battles of Tanagra Athens v Sparta 457 BC Athenian loss,
  • But followed in same year by counterattack at Battle of Oenophyta –Athens defeats Thebes and for a brief time conquered all of Boeotia except Thebes
  • Athens finally defeats old enemy Aegina and forces it into DL
  • Athens shifts to a naval emphasis rather than face Spartan land might
  • 454 BC severe setback with Egyptian disaster ,reorganisation of DL for defence
  • 451 BC Cimon returns after exile ,negotiates treaty with Sparta -5 Year Peace
  • 446 BC Boeotia revolted and Thebes defeats Athens at Battle of Coronea
  • Megara was part of this Athenian experiment- Athens built large Walls in Megara –facing the Spartans –then was furious when Megara changed sides
  • After decline of Cimon and pro-Spartan policy in Athens, Sparta was not impressed when Athens dared to face up to them
  • “First Peloponnesian War”. ended with 30 Years Peace 446 BC –Athens to be dominant at sea and Sparta on land

For a bit of fun ,try the quiz on !st Peloponnesian War Quiz
or have a look at and .These documents are taken from the above site.

past papers
2006 HSC
soundbyte from 1962 movie "300 Spartans"

a) Assess the contribution of Miltiades and Leonidas to the course of the Persian Wars.


b) Explain the origins and organisation of the Delian League

2007 HSC

(a) Assess the importance of naval battles in the course of the Persian Wars.
(b) Explain the roles and contributions of Aristides the Just and Cimon to the Delian League.

for your own version of your past papers see

6. Historical fiction
I welcome any new thing you guys can come up with ........


  • THE novel called “Pompeii” about the eruption by Robert Harris .Highly recommended
  • AD 62: Pompeii” a novel by Rebecca East. A love story set during the time of the great earthquake

The Persian wars

· The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece -- and

Western Civilization”

by Barry Strauss– a novel about the famous battle. Worth reading

  • “Soldiers of Salamis” by Javier Cercas. Not reviewed

  • The Lion in the Gateway "about the Persian Wars by Mary Renault: Her style is very approachable

  • Gates of Fire” – by Steven Pressfield :Battle of Thermopylae-very highly recommended for the
background to life in Sparta and role of helots . A must for my students

The Ten Thousand: A Novel of Ancient Greece by Michael Curtis Ford-not reviewed

  • Note-The famous Shakespearean play titled “Pericles (Prince of Tyre) ” –is NOT our Pericles

· GREEK FIRE: The Story of Pericles”: A Novel of Ancient Greece by Clara

Rising -not reviewed

Do you want to make millions of dollars?????

How about being a Hollywood (or Australian ) Film maker ???

Would you like to shower your Ancient History teacher with valuable

presents ?

Ideas for new scripts could eventually result in a Blockbuster Movie like

"Troy" or"Gladiator" !!!!

Can you think of an episode or situation in Ancient History that might,

nay SHOULD be made into a film ???

What about the sleazy and bustling life in Pompeii (before the

eruption)??? or The Battle of Salamis ?????

Who would be the best actor/actress to play certain roles?

(I have had vast acting experience)

"the 3rd soldier in the line in "The Trojan Women" showed grit and determination" -a good friend who saw
the play.
"Murray was memorable in the Card Playing Scene " - another friend who saw the play The Odd Couple.
"You were the real star of the show,darling" - my mother impressed with Villager Number 2 in
"Fiddler on the Roof" (high school musical )
"An authentic member of the crowd " - a friend who saw me in the Cricket Match scene in the movie
"The Chant of Jimmy Blacksmith"
"despite the fact that he had no lines of dialogue,he brought a real pathos and humanity to the role of the
Japanese soldier - another friend blown away by my impact in "The Long and the Short and the Tall".

Make your suggestions.......