Vesuvius explodes

Pompeii and Herculaneum- Compulsory Syllabus
"Dot Items"
You (EVENTUALLY) have to know ALL of these. NO KIDDING

1 Geographical context
  • 1a -the physical environment:
the geographical setting,
natural features and resources of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • 1b -plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum

2 The nature of sources and evidence
  • 2a - the range of available sources,
both written and
including ancient writers,
official inscriptions,
wall paintings,
human and animal remains
  • 2b -the limitations, reliability and evaluation of sources
the evidence provided by the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum for:
  • 2c the eruption
  • 2d the economy:
  • 2e social structure;
  • 2f local political life
  • 2g everyday life:
leisure activities,
food and dining,
water supply
and sanitation
  • 2h public buildings –
  • 2i private buildings –
  • 2j influence of Greek and Egyptian cultures:
  • 2k religion:
household gods,
foreign cults,

3 Investigating, reconstructing and preserving the past
  • 3a -changing methods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists
to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • 3b changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies
  • 3c issues of conservation and reconstruction:
Italian and international contributions and responsibilities;
impact of tourism
  • 3d ethical issues: study and display of human remains
Finding your way around the page-I hope the colour coding works!!!
tell me what colours work

Section 1.Introduction
2. Research Tasks- just some suggestions or for revision or just for fun or sucking up
3. Review and comments about novel "Pompeii"
4. the "Volcanalia"
5. Pliny the Elder -notes.
6.A schedule of the eruption -Taken from Pliny's description
7.Aqua Augusta and Roman aqueducts
8. Written sources and documents
9. Some great sites -including Primary sources and AAPP
10.Glossary based on Pamela Bradley (-Textbook)
11. The Gates of Pompeii- description and notes
12.a) Interactive Map of Pompeii- great resource !!!
13.Analysis of Catiline map of Pompeii
14. the "other BOS" -notes on Herculaneum
15. The Amphitheatre in Pompeii ,sites and documents
16. Eumachia -Patroness of the Fullers
17.Streetscape in Herculaneum
18. Greek and Egyptian influence in Pompeii
19. Modern Archaeology and reconstruction issues
20. List of sources from the "real BOS" from HSC Support Document
21. Past Papers and suggested answers

Section 1.
These gems are assembled from my VAST experience teaching and marking this
subject and are also documents etc created and sites discovered in the course of teaching this topic

“….when I started teaching it, it was called Modern History…”
Small drum roll- bad-doom tttsss

Map of Campania

Here is a plan for research topics ,loosely based on the Syllabus Dot Points.
The due date is also important

The following are the tasks for the HSC group of 2008-2009.
NB -You (the HSC Class of 2011) don't have to do them but
(Good Notes for anyone who submits any of these EXTRA tasks to me )

Section 2. Research Tasks-(Optional)

These research assignments are NOT formal assessments, they are for revision purposes only.

Sources study

i) From a study of Pliny and/or
ONE other written source and
ii) ONE temple or public building (archaeological ruin) and/or
ONE inscription or piece of graffiti and/or
ONE statue or wall painting or fresco
2x5 marks

Explain what each of them tells us about life in Pompeii and Herculaneum before the eruption.
10 marks

Assess each of them for their usefulness to the modern historian.
500 words minimum
15 marks

The Eruption-Wall Poster

Design and illustrate a Wall Poster with all the phases of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD that destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum, clearly described for a Junior History class. 10 marks
Make up a glossary for all the terms used.
10 marks

Areas to look at :
o Public
o Baths
o Food
o Drink
o Other

Make up tourist brochure for the town of Pompeii, set BEFORE the eruption.
You must include the activities in the
Palaestra ;
Theatre ;
Public Baths;
Restaurants and Fast Food;
Bars and any other attractions you think that might attract a visitor from the capital City of Rome.

Describe and illustrate clearly.
Each page should be half A4 size. ie 8 Half pages
10 marks

Hint :
For 2g
have a look at this file -translated from an Italian tourism site
Everyday life in Pompeii.docx

and for the upper classes fine eating

o Public Buildings -Poster -( A3 size)
a) Describe how each of the following contributed to life in Pompeii or Herculaneum:
Aqueducts ,
palaestra and amphitheatres.
b) Select ONE public building
from either Pompeii or Herculaneum and give a detailed description of where it is sited in the town,
any information about its construction and usage.
Provide an illustrated diagram
10 marks
o Private Dwellings- Brochures - ( 2 x 4 A4 size pages )
c) Select TWO different private houses in either Pompeii or Herculaneum.
Design a real estate brochure for each, giving details of various attractive features for each structure.
Explain any terms you use clearly.
2x 5 marks
for 2d,2f,2g
o Occupations
o Health
o Politics

have a look at

and for politics

i) Make a list of various activities that free citizens in the workforce carried out in Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Divide them into Primary production (farming olives ,grapes ,fruit, vegetables and fishing) and Manufacturing and
Service (wool ,textiles, shopkeepers, artisans ,goldsmiths, gambling, prostitution etc )
4 marks
ii) For SIX of these above occupations find some archaeological evidence that shows how these activities were carried out.
500 words minimum.-
Some Junior texts could be useful here -see me for recommendations
6 marks
iii) You are a visiting doctor from Rome. Make a brief report about the general health of the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Include aspects of sanitation, water supply, sewerage, public and private baths, bathrooms, public and private toilets,
treatment of disease etc. 500 words minimum.
10 marks
iv) Explain the different stages of the Cursus Honorem.
What evidence is there of the names and background of any candidates for public office in Pompeii?
10 marks

Religion 2j

a) Hand Draw a map of Pompeii. Label clearly 10 ten temples that were used to worship before the eruption.
b) For each of them describe the deity/deities and how they were worshipped.
c) Explain the origin of each religion and its significance to the Roman world
3x5 marks

3. Intensive study of the novel "Pompeii" by Robert Harris has resulted in my noting a few interesting points for you

The Novel Pompeii -Book review attached .If you don't have time to read the whole novel ,at least have a look at

for 2d ,2g
4. The day before the eruption was a public holiday, the 24 August was the festival called
Volcanalia -( pretty damned ironic I thought).
Actually the modern name for Volcano CAME from this.(True)

for background :
August 23
Pantheist, Polytheist: The Volcanalia is a festival sacred to Volcanus (Vulcan), the fire god.
On this day great bonfires were lit at night in his honor and feasts were held. The Romans learned the hard way that temples to Volcanus had to be built outside the city, as the bonfires and festivals could get out of control by excited participants.
Into the fire the Romans would throw live fishes from the Tiber that were caught in the area Vulcani.
Volcanoes, earthquakes and lightning were all the domain of Volcanus.Fish were regarded as the only creatures in nature that were not afraid of the god Vulcan.
August 24
Festival of Vulcan
Pantheist, Polytheist:
This day continued the Volcanalia, though unnamed as such, and the
fires of the previous night were allowed to burn out, or put out if they had been buildings in the city.
The rite of mundus was performed this day, in which an effigy representing the sky was placed upside down in a pit and covered with a large stone called the lapis manalis.
Three times a year, including today, the stone was removed to allow the spirits of the underworld access to the upper regions of the earth
for 2a -written sources
5. THE Pliny ( the Elder) referred to in primary sources (and the novel) was an amazingly talented author of hundreds of books and articles ........
( Think of "The Doc" in "Back to the Future")

including twenty books of his History of the German Wars, (now lost)at least 8 safe books on Grammar and Rhetoric (sadly now lost),a controversial History of His Times (yep,lost) in thirty-one books, possibly extending from the reign of Nero to that of Vespasian, and his most famous work (surviving-hooray - to some extent):

"the Naturalis Historia, an encyclopedia into which Pliny collected much of the knowledge of his time. The work had been planned under the rule of Nero. The materials collected for this purpose filled rather less than 160 volumes, which Larcius Licinus, the praetorian legate of Hispania Tarraconensis, vainly offered to purchase for a sum equivalent to more than £3,200
(1911 estimated value) or £200,000 (2002 estimated value).
Aside from minor finishing touches, the work in 37 books was completed in AD 77.
Pliny dedicated the work to the emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus in 77"

(Pretty smart career move as he (Emperor Vespasian) gave him the job as admiral
later ).

"The only extant (surviving today) work of Pliny's is the Natural History; its survival is due to the
very nature of the work, covering as it does almost the entire field of ancient knowledge, based
on the best authorities. As a result it was used for reference over the following centuries by
countless scholars, especially in medicine, plants and plant products (e.g., wine, agriculture, architecture, sculpture, geology and mineralogy. "

for more info on his life see
Pliny the Elder

For 2c -the eruption
6. The Eruption of Vesuvius—A.D. 79
( Adapted by me from the account of Pliny )
  • There had been for several days before some shocks of earthquake, which the less
alarmed us as they are frequent in Campania
  • On the 24th of August, about one in the afternoon, my mother desired him to observe a cloud of very unusual size and appearance- resembling it to that of a pine tree, for it shot up a great height in the form of a trunk, which extended itself at the top into several branches;
  • Cloud expanded laterally as it dissolved, or possibly the downward pressure of its own weight produced this effect.
  • And now cinders fell
  • then pumice-stones too, with stones blackened, scorched, and cracked by fire,
  • then the sea ebbed suddenly
  • The shore was blocked up by landslips from the mountains.
  • Mount Vesuvius was blazing in several places with spreading and towering flames, whose refulgent brightness the darkness of the night set in high relief.
  • Deserted villas on fire in the abandoned district.
  • But the court (yard) ….now lay so deep under a mixture of pumice-stones and ashes, egress (getting out) would have been impossible.
  • Houses now tottered under repeated and violent concussions, and seemed to rock to and fro as if torn from its foundations.
  • falling pumice-stones, light and porous though they were;…by comparison, seemed the lesser danger of the two; (than staying indoors)
  • A deeper darkness prevailed than in the most obscure night; relieved, however, by many torches and divers illuminations.
  • On the sea, the waves still run extremely high and contrary.
  • Flames, and a strong smell of sulphur, which was the forerunner of them, dispersed the rest of the company in flight;
  • That night the earthquakes became very violent that one might think that the world was not being merely shaken, but turned topsy-turvy.
  • The buildings … tottered, and though we stood upon open ground, yet as the place was narrow and confined, there was certain and formidable danger from their collapsing.
  • We resolved to quit the town. The common people follow us in the utmost consternation,
  • The coaches which we had ordered out, though upon the most level ground, were sliding to and fro, and could not be kept steady even when stones were put against the wheels.
  • Then we beheld the sea sucked back, and as it were repulsed by the convulsive motion of the earth; it is certain at least the shore was considerably enlarged, and now held many sea-animals captive on the dry sand.
  • On the other side, a black and dreadful cloud bursting out in gusts of igneous serpentine vapour now and again yawned open to reveal long fantastic flames, resembling flashes of lightning but much larger.
  • The cloud began to descend upon the earth, and cover the sea.
  • Gross darkness pressed upon our rear, and came rolling over the land after us like a torrent.
  • You could hear the shrieks of women, the crying of children, and the shouts of men; last and eternal night was come upon the world.
  • By degrees it grew lighter; which we imagined to be rather the warning of approaching fire (as in truth it was) than the return of day;
  • fire stayed at a distance from us: then again came darkness, and a heavy shower of ashes; we were obliged every now and then to rise and shake them off, otherwise we should have been buried and even crushed under their weight.
  • At last this dreadful darkness … to a kind of cloud or smoke, and passed away;
  • Presently the real day returned, and even the sun appeared, though as when an eclipse is in progress.
  • Every object ….. cover'd over with a drift of ashes, as with snow.
  • The earthquake still continued, and several enthusiastic people were giving a grotesque turn to their own and their neighbours’' calamities by terrible predictions.

Cities of Vesuvius.doc

for 2g -everyday life -water supply and sanitation
7. the real "hero" of the novel
is the magnificent Great Aqueduct "Aqua Augusta"
- a lifeline for the whole area of Campania "The Aqua Augusta or Serino Aqueduct was a Roman aqueduct which supplied water to eight cities in Campania

For more see in the Bay of Naples, including Pompeii, Stabiae and Nola.
It started near the modern town of Serino and terminated, after 96 km, in the Piscina Mirabilis at the naval port, Portus Julius, of Misenum. The Emperor Augustus, (or more likely his close friend and ally Agrippa), built the Aqua Augusta between 30 and 20 BC.
Little remains of the aqueduct today, although traces of the original structure may be found at a number of sites, including several in and around Naples as well as the well-preserved Piscina Mirabilis at Misenum."

soundbyte from Monty Python's Life of Brian "What have the Romans ever done for us?"

For 2a written documents
8. For a good look at the written documents I have found some information in the
Support Document and elsewhere check out
this document has Pliny the Younger's letters to Tacitus, Cassio Dio , Martial,Statius, Seneca,
Strabo ,Pliny the Elder , Florus ,Tacitus himself and a list of Graffiti and Inscriptions.

Also some useful sites are mentioned .
Understanding Primary Sources is an Activity Sheet based on Pliny and a comparison with a secondary source

A list of further written sources is including Martial, Statius,Tacitus, Seneca , Strabo, Vitruvius, Cato, Flores , Livy, Appian , Velleius Paterculus ,Orosius , Cicero and Quintus Cicero.

The City of Pompeii had not ever really recovered from the terrible earthquake of 62AD. There were so

many damaged houses and structures that a whole class of very,very rich speculators -many of them wealthy ex-slaves (like the villain in the novel) bought up at a pittance the wrecked houses and villas, and many were subdivided into flats and rented out .When the previous owners had been killed or were not contacted or see "the Banquet of Trimalchio" - a parody on the "Nouveau riche" ex-slaves who came into a great deal of wealth and the very conspicuous spending of such wealth

For 2d,2e,2g


Pompeii has often (by Australian students) been compared to the Gold Coast for wealthy Romans.
As well as being a very pleasant seaside resort there were many products that came from this fertile region, especially seafood and wine.
It had the older established families as well as the newly mega-rich property speculators and shady businessmen . (like ex-slave Ampliatus in the novel)

To celebrate their prosperity ,newly freed slaves and speculators were allowed to endow temples and monuments to the former Emperor Augustus -not the traditional gods like Jupiter etc .
Pompeii is littered with many much evidence of this emperor -worship

For 2c -the eruption

here is a good interactive site- Pompeii Death of a City
the sections include:
Death of a City,
Pompeii in 79 AD,
A Sophisticated town,
Warning signs,
Vesuvius erupts,
Rain of terror,
The People of Pompeii,
Used and recommended sources,

For 2d -
The economy
here is a useful PowerPoint on the Economy in Pompeii

For 2g
Everyday Life
see a document I assembled on Food and Eating

9. Some great Sites
  • A useful look at many aspects of Roman Society is at Roman Society
For 2i

For 3b
For 2a
  • For a study of Primary sources see �121� which was compiled from the HSC Support document

  • see also if you can, the DVD "BBC/Discovery Channel's co-production Pompeii."

see http://wings.buffalo.edu/AandL/Maecenas/italy_except_rome_and_sicily/pompeii/thumbnails_
for a great range of photos contents.html
For 3c,3d
Highly recommended for a modern look at Pompeii excavation.

soundbyte from movie "Ben Hur"
N.B. This topic ( modern archaeology) is THE DISCRIMINATOR
in the HSC

This is the introduction to their (AAPP) excellent site:

"Many people are surprised to learn that there are still archaeologists working in Pompeii, but the Anglo-American Project in Pompeii (AAPP) has been doing just that for many summers.
We have been working in one city-block (Regio VI, insula 1), oddly shaped and tucked into the north-west corner of Pompeii. When the city was rediscovered, VI,1 was one of the
first areas to be cleared, and it served as the first stop in late-eighteenth-century tours of the city.
For tourists and scholars of this time, Pompeii offered a perfectly preserved snapshot of Roman daily life. Today, however,research questions have moved on. Although the Anglo-American Project is interested in the conditions of city life in A.D. 79, the year Vesuvius erupted, we are investigating below the destruction level to understand the whole history of activity and development in VI,1--from its fourth-century B.C. huts to its burial in the late first century A.D. "

More sites I dug up are :
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook09.html where a whole range of Roman topics are dealt with.
Not much on Pompeii but if you want aspects of Roman civilisation and sources take a note of this one.

for 2a
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pompeii-inscriptions.html where a lot of familiar inscriptions are to be found

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook.html is the starting point for many many aspects of Ancient History

try Arcane History -many useful modern quotes are available here ; there is a great section on Pompeii at Arcane History
For 2j
From your Textbook (Bradley) you will receive some worksheets .
But here is a file I made up for Chapter 9 - Religion and Death that has an excellent Glossary of Roman terms
-took me ages !!!!
This topic is possibly the hardest to understand for students so please open and print it out and save to do exercise

Glossary of terms for Pamela Bradley: "Cities of Vesuvius Pompeii and Herculaneum"
Religion and Death Chapter 9. If you want a hard copy for your own
then you can do the fun exercise in
( swap the cells to the correct position)

( Correct Version)
Meaning or definition
small household shrine that holds small altars of the Lares (house and family gods) and Penates (Gods of the larder )
judgments of sentiment and taste.
"good"demon or spirit worshipped by Egyptians. Snake wrapped around the altar and protected it. Brought fertility.
small decorative medallions
Egyptian god of the dead.associated with Roman Mercury
Annia Paculla
Priestess who changed the rules of Bacchanalias so that regarding nothing was forbidden in the Bacchus' cult.
King Minos' daughter . Fell in love with and helped Theseus defeat Minotaur. He then dumped her. Met and married Dionysius .
a large open space in Roman houses.Central hall area with an impluvium (pool) in middle. Sometimes had decorative fish which were highly prized in Roman society
College of priests devoted to Emperor worship; part-time recruits ,often freedmen . A way of social advancement
riotous merry celebrations ; often associated with sexual abandon
Roman version of Greek Dionysius -god of wine and intoxication
rites of Bacchus-Dionysius. Declared a threat to public order 186 BC
followers of the Bacchus/Dionysius cult
large Roman public building. Later used as Christian churches.
method of sculpting carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture.
front row seat at the theatre reserved for VIP's
Capitoline (hill)
between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and highest of all the seven hills of Rome. Thus the "Capital" of the City
ferryman who ferried the dead across the river Acheron in the
small spirits or angels,in Roman times often associated with Bacchus
a receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Often cisterns are built to catch and store rainwater.
Collegium Augustalium
Order devoted to the worship of the genius of the Emperor Augustus
amongst the ancient Romans, a howl over the dead;women led the funeral cortège, weeping ostentatiously and gesticulating
Roman goddess of harmony
Magna Mater or "Great Mother"-associated with the Earth Mother Goddess,Gaiea from very ancient times
Excessive indulgence of the appetites; especially,excessive indulgence
of lust sensuality and lewdness
gods and goddesses ( from Latin deus=god)
associated with Dionysius
impressive building
Eleusinian Mysteries
initiation ceremonies held for the cult of Demeter and Persephone. Of all the mysteries, held to be the ones of greatest importance
followers of the philosopher Epicurus.They believed that finding pleasure was the finest thing in life
One of the most prominent citizens of the city of Pompeii.Priestess and become a patron of the town’s corporation of fullers, the dyers and clothing cleaners.
place-spirits of untamed woodland. Romans connected their fauns with the Greek satyrs, wild, orgiastic drunken followers of Bacchus -the Greek Dionysus
priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion.
goddess of fortune and fate and the capriciousness of life. Personification of luck, hopefully good luck, could be veiled and blind, (Justice)
painting type, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian"affresco" from the adjective fresco ("fresh"),
generally triangular portion of a wall between the lines of a sloping roof.
the guiding or "tutelary" spirit of a person, or even of an entire gens.(family)
covered with gold or gold paint
Period after the Death of Alexander the Great. Greek culture spread throughout the ancient eastern world.
Egyptian god. Represented as a falcon or a man with a falcon head.Son of Osiris and associated with the resurrection of his father.
This concept helped in the eventual later acceptance of the ideas of Christianity
House of the Vetti
famous luxurious residence.Owned by two successful freedmen: Aulus Vettius Conviva, an Augustalis, and Aulus Vettius Restitutus.Famous for wall frescos
an aromatic gum or other substance producing a sweet odor when burned, used in religious ceremonies, to enhance a mood, etc.
Used today for religious ceremonies.
burial ,in the ground
a person taining to become a priest.Assisting in ceremonies etc
festival between 13 and 16 November commemorating discovery of the body of Osiris
Egyptian goddess.Wife of Osiris.Helped resurrect his body.
Cult temple to her was very popular in the Roman world.
relating to early Italian tribes before their conquest by Rome
Julia Felix
a Roman woman of Pompeii.Very wealthy property owner,grand villa ,an entire block, well furnished and decorated until ruined in earthquake of 62 A.D.
Lararium ,Lararia
altar is the sacred place of the home where offerings and prayers made to the gods. In more affluent Roman homes the main Lararium is usually in the Atrium
Household traditional gods
Lares Familiares
household gods
Lares Publici
protectors of the crossroads.Little shrines were common at stret corners
purification ceremony,a procession,possibly a sacrifice.Rid newborn children of harmful spirits . Baby was then named when the baby reached 8-9 days old..
mani pantee
votive hand in sign of benediction (blessing) often found on "good luck"amulet
An art genre in which representations are intended to glorify or idealize excessively
some event, person or thing.
with a winged heel ,the messenger god of trade, profit and commerce, the son of Jupiter.
Persian origin, god of the Sun.Religion based on Mithra connected with bulls and military prowess. Very popular with men and the army
mola salsa
cereal cake used by Vestal Virgins in sacrifices and was a common offering to the household hearth. A mixture of coarse-ground, cooked flour and salt.
sea nymphs.Often accompany Poseidon and are always friendly and helpful towards sailors fighting perilous storms.
cemetery.Literally home of the dead.
riotously drunken merrymaking
Associated with Orpheus, descended into Hades and returned. Orphics revered Persephone and Dionysus/Bacchus (also descended into Hades and returned).
Egyptian god of the underworld,life, death, and fertility.
Redeemer and merciful judge of the dead in the afterlife
Hellenic pharaohs produced a god acceptable to local Egyptians and Greeks. Osiris was combined with a Greek god, known as Serapis.
the set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology
a paper like material made from reeds. Used to write on
broad, shallow dish used for drinking, primarily in a ritual context such as a libation.
head of the family in Roman times -Father or eldest son ,held total control over family and conducted religious ceremonies
triangular section found above horizontal , supported by columns. The triangular area decorated with sculptures and reliefs of Greek and Roman mythology.
Gods of the larder or storeroom
guardians of the larder (penus)
store of human food
City in Roman east.Asia Minor
symbol of male organ,represented virility and fertility
professional mourners and musicians at a funeral procession
a platform that is used to raise something to a short distance above
its surroundings
Roman god of fertility and abundance.Usually shown with huge erect penis.They were often used in gardens like modern stone gnomes
Ptolemy I
one of Alexanders generals.Took over Egypt and founded Ptolemaic dynasty of Macedonian Greeks ruled from 323 BC to 29 BC
place where things are stored
Sacred Marriage
final ceremony for an initiate.represents the union of the devotee and the god
a Latin novel, believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius
younger satyr-a half man half beast
troop of male companions of Pan and Dionysus, associated with male sex drive and often portrayed
with uncontrollable erections.
evil brother of Osiris . Kills him in a fit of jealousy
older satyr-a half man half beast
sacred metallic rattle used in processions for Isis worshippers
City in Roman east. Asia Minor
material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Applied wet, and hardens when it dries.
It is used as a coating for walls and ceilings and for decoration.
below the surface,in a cave or tunnel
hero of Greek mythology.Seduced Ariadne,dumped her and slew Minotaur
staff tipped with a pine cone-carried by Dionysius /Bacchus
three supreme deities in Roman religion, worshipped in an elaborate temple on
Rome's Capitoline Hill, the Capitolium. Jupiter, Juno and Minerva
dining room in a Roman building with three surfaces, or couches , on three sides of a low square table. Diners would recline in a semi-recumbent position.
fictional character from Petrarch's Satyricon.
Egyptian cobra symbol.Often on headdress
patron goddess of Pompeii.Roman goddesss of love and beauty.based on Greek Aphrodite
emperor of Rome after Nero.69 AD to 79 AD.First Flavian emperor
virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family
Villa of the Mysteries
owned by Istacidii family.Large family tombs included that of priestess Venus Mamia
Villa of Cicero
aristocratic villa in Herculaneum
a votive offering is an object left in a sacred place for ritual purposes

soundbyte from movie "Ben Hur"

11. Gates or exits in the walled city of Pompeii
see //http://users.ipa.net/~tanker/pompeii.htm//
For 1b
- a colour conjectural map of Pompeii with very useful colouring to "take in" the city easily .
For your hard copy see

Using Capua as the 12 O’clock or direct Northern gate, see map.
This is the order of the exits in Pompeii.
Prosperous regional city. On Appian Way route to Rome.
Gladiator schools, Spartacus was trained here in 1st Century BC
12 o’clock
Oldest town in Campania –Oscan language still spoken in 79 AD
1 o’clock
On the Sarno River.
Connected to Pompeii and the sea by canal
2 o’clock
Nearby rival town, part of riot in Pompeian amphitheatre.
To punish Pompeii, games banned for decade
3 o’clock
Sea port near Pompeii where Pliny (Elder) died.
Many very luxurious villas including largest in Campania – Villa San Marco.
4 o’clock
Sea Gate –Two entrances, one for people the other animals or carts.
Main modern entrance to excavation
7 o’clock
Sister City to Pompeii
9 o’clock
Nearby mountain ,not known to be a volcano for over 800 years
10 o’clock

Porta means Gate or Door
1. Porta di CapuaCompass direction Due North
2. Porta di NolaNorth North East
3. Porta di Sarno-North East
4. Porta di Nuceria-Due East
5. Porta di Stabiae-South East
6. Porta di MarinaSouth West
7. Porta di Herculaneum Due West
8. Porta di Vesuvius North West

Silly little acronyms– (made up by my 2008 HSC students)
Select the

and a cleaned up version :
Maidens for
His friend

Your Challenge: Think of a better one!!!!!
THEY DID !!!!!!

Year 11 2010 came up with one of the Best - and surprisingly accurate given my prediliiction for Hawaiian shirts


12.Views of Pompeii
For 2c
-Understanding Maps and diagrams
A recent discovery of mine (2010) is the coolest ever interactive site for Pompeii
Pompeii in Pictures
You can go to any of the sections and there are photos of each discovery.In its own words:

"A complete photographic plan of everything at ancient Pompeii as it is today, produced by Jackie and Bob Dunn"

Sections include
  • Altars
  • Arches
  • Fountains
  • Gates
  • Streets -You really must have a look at this !!!!
  • Tombs and
  • Towers

For 1b
13. This detailed section below is looking at the
Colour Catiline Map
mentioned above and is a way of finding specific structures and buildings in Pompeii .
( the saved file is Multi-coloured ) .

On the Road to Herculaneum (outside city wall)
    • a Villa of "Cicero"
    • b Villa of Diomede
    • c Villa of the Mosaic Columns
    • d Villa of the Mysteries

  • Regio IV -maroon on map.
  • near Capua gate at 12 o’clock
4 insulae – no description.

  • Regio V –yellow on map- Changed here to gray as yellow is too hard to read
  • Between Vesuvian and Capuan Gates
  • From 11 to 12 on a clock
    • Insula 1:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of the Little Bull
      • c House of Lucius Caecilius Jucundus
    • Insula 2:
      • a House of Queen Margherita
      • b House of the Silver Wedding
    • Insula 3:a Bakery
    • Insula 4:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of Marcus Lucretius Fronto
    • Insula 5:a House of the Gladiators

  • Regio VI light blue on map
  • between Herculaneum Gate and Vesuvian Gate
    • g Water Tower
    • Insula 1:
      • a House of the Surgeon
      • b House of the Vestals
      • c Salt Market
    • Insula 2:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of Sallust
    • Insula 3:a Bakery
    • Insula 5:a Bakery
    • Insula 6:
    • Insula 7:
      • a House of Adonis
      • b House of Apollo
    • Insula 8:
    • Insula 9:
      • a House of Castor & Pollux
      • b House of the Centaur
      • c House of Meleager
    • Insula 10:
      • a House of the Anchor
      • b Tavern
    • Insula 11:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of the Labyrinth
    • Insula 12: House of the Faun
    • Insula 14:
      • a Bakery
      • b Bakery
      • c Casino
      • d House of Orpheus/Vesonius Primus
      • e Fullery
    • Insula 15:a House of the Vettii
    • Insula 16:
      • a House of the Golden Cupids
      • b House of the Ara Maxima

  • Marine Road
    • a Villa of the Marine Gate – outside city walls

  • Regio I – dark blue on map
  • between Nucerian Gate and Stabian Gate
    • Insula 3:
      • a Bakery
      • b Bakery
    • Insula 4:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of the Citharist
    • Insula 6:
      • b House of the Cryptoporticus
      • c House & Shop of Verus, the Coppersmith
      • d House of Lucius Ceius Secundus
      • e House of Casca Longus
      • f Fullery of Stephanus
      • g House of the Lararium
    • Insula 7:
      • a House of Amandio
      • b House of Amandus, the Priest
      • c Dyers' Shop
      • d House of Paquius Proculus
      • e House of the Ephebe
    • Insula 8:
      • a House of Felix, the Fruit Merchant
      • b House of the Statue from India
      • c Bar
    • Insula 9:
      • a House of the Orchard
      • a House of the Beautiful Impluvium
      • a House of Successus
    • Insula 10:
      • a House of the Lovers
      • b House of the Menander
    • Insula 12:a Bakery

  • Regio II “Plum” colour in this map
  • Insula 2:
    • a House of the Civic Crown
    • b House of Loreius Tiburtinus
  • Insula 3:a House/Villa of the Venus Marina
  • Insula 4:
    • a House/Villa of Julia Felix
    • b Baths
    • c Tavern
  • Insula 6: Amphitheatrelink tohttp://users.ipa.net/~tanker/amphit01.htmwhich shows a cross-section of
  • the seating
  • Insula 7: Large Palaestra

  • Regio III pink on map
  • Between Nola and Sarno Gate
    • Insula 2:a House of Trebius Valens
    • Insula 3:a Armory
    • Insula 4:
      • a House of the Moralist
      • b House of Pinarius Cerialis

  • Regio VII “salmon” on map
  • Between Marina Gate and halfway to Herculaneum Gate
    • Insula 1:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of Siricus
      • c Inn of Sittius
      • d Stabian Baths
    • Insula 2:
      • a Bakery
      • b Bakery
      • c Bakery of Modestus
      • d House of the Bear
      • e House of Marcus Gavius Rufus
    • Insula 3: House of Spurius Mesor
    • Insula 4:
      • a Bakery
      • b Brothel
      • c House of Ariadne
      • d House of the Black Walls
      • e House of the Figured Capitals
      • f House of the Hunt
      • g Temple of Fortuna Augusta
    • Insula 5: Forum Baths at http://users.ipa.net/~tanker/pvii5.htm
    • Insula 7:
      • a Temple of Apollo
      • b Granary
      • c Public restrooms
    • Insula 8:
      • a Forum
      • b Temple of Jupiter
      • c Suggestum
      • d Bureau of Measures
    • Insula 9:
      • a Building of Eumachia
      • b Market
      • c Temple of the Lares
      • d Temple of Vespasian
    • Insula 11:a Brothel
    • Insula 12:
      • a Bakery
      • b Bakery
      • c Bakery
      • d Bakery
      • e Brothel
      • f Brothel
      • g House of the Hanging Balcony
    • Insula 14:
      • a Brothel
      • b Brothel
      • c Brothel

  • Regio VIII
  • Olive on map
  • Between Marina Gate and Stabiae gate
    • a Basilica
    • b Temple of Venus Pompeiiana
    • Insula 2:
      • c Doric Temple
      • d Gladiators' Barracks
      • e Hall of the Aediles
      • f Hall of the Duovirs
      • g Large Theatre
      • h Small (Samnite) Palaestra
      • i Small Theatre (Odeon)
      • j Temple of Isis
      • k Temple of Juppiter Meilichius
      • l Town Council
      • m Triangular Forum
      • n Private Palaestra & Baths
    • Insula 3:
      • c Comitium
      • d House of the Wild Boar
    • Insula 4:
      • c Bakery
      • d House of Cornelius Rufus
      • e House of Olconius Rufus
  • Regio IX
  • Bright green on map
  • Central heart or section of map
    • Insula 1:
      • a Bakery
      • b House of Epidius Sabinus
      • c House of Marcus Epidius Rufus
    • Insula 2: Asellina's Inn
    • Insula 3:
      • a Bakery
      • b Bakery
      • c House of Marcus Lucretius
    • Insula 4:Central Baths
    • Insula 5:b Bakery
    • Insula 6:
      • a Brothel
      • b Brothel
    • Insula 7:
      • a Closed-up Shop
      • b House of Popidius Montanus
      • c Fullery of Verecundus
    • Insula 8:a House of the Centenary
    • Insula 11:a Asellina's Bar
    • Insula 12:
      • a Bakery
      • b Weavers (upstairs)
    • Insula 13:
      • a House of Fabius Ululitremulus
      • b House of Julius Polybius
    • Insula 14:a House of Obellius Firmus

This information is based on the map is based on the "Pompeii" article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1968 edition),
Michael Grant's Atlas of Classical History (Oxford, 1994), The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome
(by Chris Scarre, 1995) and the Napoli e dintorni volume of the Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano
(Milan, 1960).
If you want a really cool multicoloured hard copy of this see


14. A useful source for students is the Bored of Studies site at Bored of Studies.
There is a Bulletin Board where you can find all sorts of notes and help.
For example here is some stuff on Herculaneum :

For 3c
Herculaneum Conservation Project

a project that's concerned with conservation and preservation of the site and its many artefacts, which can fall into the category of methods of investigation...

there aren't any artefacts/sources because it's a modern initiative, but basically they realised that maintenance programs were failing and started the Herculaneum conservation project.
There are a few archaeologists involved, and there are quite a few things that have been done:

1. Consolidation of structures ensuring buildings remain standing, allowing for further conservation-restoration work -

M Castaldi

2. Methods used on Insula Orientalis, which is a single urban block of 3 houses, and the Suburban Baths to prevent rainwater damage; water pools rather than flows away because of drainage problems.

Solutions: roofs erected (temporary only, more permanent ones needed later), studies by water engineers have adapted ancient drainage measures to combat the modern problem

3. Scientific research - a conservation scientist called G Torraca is trying to understand the processes undergone by plaster, wood, metal features etc to find out how to best conserve them.

More Bored of Studies sites
Great site with some interesting contents
For 1a

for 1a

Sample of -The Physical Environment: The Geographical Setting, Natural Features and

Resources of Pompeii & Herculaneum

  • Mount Vesuvius is located on the Bay of Naples in the region of Campania.

  • The volcano meant that the region and surrounding towns had extremely fertile soil.
  • Farmlands would produce wheat, barley, cabbages, broad-beans, chickpeas, dates, figs and olives.
  • Sheep and goats were grazed in great numbers.

  • Pompeii:
    • Located approximately 9km from Vesuvius.
    • Had a population of around 20 000 at the time of the eruption, the area measuring 67 ha.
    • The main street, the Via dell Abbondanza was the main commercial road, as shown by the deep wheel
    • grooves.
    • A very commercial town, the main industries included the busy seaport, resorts for tourists, cloth
    • making and dyeing.
    • Exports included olive oil, wine, garum (fermented fish sauce) and woollen goods.

  • Herculaneum:
    • Located approximately 7km from Vesuvius.
    • Had a population of around 5000 at the time of the eruption, and area measuring 22ha.
    • Main street = Decumanus Maximus.
    • The main industry was fishing; however the town was much less commercial than Pompeii.
  • Misenum:
    • Located approximately 30km from Vesuvius.
    • This is where Pliny the Younger was during the eruption.
  • Stabiae:
    • Located approximately 5km from Vesuvius.
    • This is where Pliny the Elder was located during the eruption.
    • He died on the beach.

Both Pompeii & Herculaneum had a forum, basilica, temples, amphitheatres, palaestras, theatres, tombs, thermae and
They were divided into insulae (city blocks with 1-12 dwellings)
Who were the early settlers?
According to legend, Herculaneum was founded by Hercules, the Greek Hero and so took his name.

Historians think this means that it was settled by Greek traders in the 6th century BC.

These people came there from Cumae, or Parthenope (Naples).
What were the main geographical features and resources? there is a mild climate and a fantastic view

(go there!!!) it is rich in things that you find in the Mediterranean. So olives, wine (ooo wine) and fish. there are

some sources both written are archeological from Pompeii and Herculaneum that show a great number of people
were involved in these industries. Wool and textiles and fruit and veggies were also an important industry in the
Vesuvius area.


Pompeii amphitheatre

For 2h
15. The Amphitheatre in Pompeii

( Sources in 2008 HSC )
The Gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and awnings. Good fortune to all Neronian games.

Gaius Quinctius Valgus ,son of Gaius and Marcus Porcius ,son of Marcus , quinquennial duumvirs ,for the honour of the colony ,saw to the construction of the amphitheatre at their own expense and gave the area to the colonists in perpetuity.

Using the Source and your own knowledge, explain the importance of the amphitheatre in Pompeian society.

The amphitheatre was very significant for the people of Pompeii ,
it was a form of mass entertainment
It has been described as a social snapshot of the social
structure –the poorest citizens way up in the
“nose-bleed” bleachers ,down to the front row seats where the richest and most prominent citizens were seated .The amphitheatre was one of the first areas discovered in the excavation of
Pompeii open to the public. The amphitheatres seats were in a great hollow excavated for this purpose.
The amphitheatre must have occupied around twenty thousand spectators. The walls around the arena are only six feet high.
It is believed that admission to higher seats was free, because they were so undesirable.
It held a variety of sporting and entertainment events
These ranged from animal fights , humans fighting and killing animals and most popular of all , gladiatorial events between trained and armed fighters
These were either slaves or captured prisoners of war or criminals and often fought to the death
Some of them were trained at special gladiatorial schools
where they leaned to put up an entertaining fight. Some of these gladiatorial schools have been identified in Pompeii such as the Gladiatorial Barracks
Source 3 says that a gladiatorial troupe will fight on 31st May and hints that sometimes they didn’t have enough of their own gladiators and hired them from travelling shows.
Sometimes if they fought bravely and lost they were spared from being killed by the victor by the pleas of the crowd
As seen in the Source part of the spectacle ,the earlier part of the program involved a hunt of wild and exotic animals which were killed and their remains given to the poor as food
Awnings were provided by the local politicians to shade the upper class spectators. These sails were manned by sailors who were quite skilled with rigging ropes etc to move the sails as required. It was a highly desirable duty for sailors allowed to view the games .
A naval base nearby provided the crews for these details.
As seen in Source 3 the Games on 31 May (year unspecified) were associated with the former emperor Nero
who like many other aspiring politicians wanted to gain support from the crowd for entertaining them.
Maybe the style of the gladiatorial games are called Neronian in their extravagance (?)
His (Nero) reign ended in 68 AD and the next emperors were Vespasian till 24 June 79 and Titus his son became emperor at the time of the eruption. Titus was famous for opening the Flavian Amphitheatre (The Colosseum) in 80 AD.
Archaeologist Green “the Roman people were clearly obsessed with gladiatorial sport.”
Brian Brennan says it is doubtful that Herculaneum had an amphitheatre as it was a much smaller centre , a smaller fishing village compared to Pompeii which was a provincial city
As seen in the second inscription in Source 3 Valgus and Porcius were two local politicians who wanted the electoral support of the crowd. They were quinquennial duumvirs, two senior local magistrates elected every 5 years similar to modern mayors or state parliamentarians. (?)
They personally financed the building of this amphitheatre
Games were funded by the Aediles or duoviri of the city.There were also inscriptions in Pompeii about the outcomes of battles between leading gladiators e.g.

Cedalus, glory of the girls ,heartthrob of the girls
Smaller cities (like Pompeii) held chariot racing in the amphitheatres as well as hunting contests, sport and other contests.

All sorts of entertainment connected to athletics were highly regarded in Roman society.
Archaeologist Ray Lawrence “the amphitheatre was a snapshot of social structure. If you’re up the back (of the amphitheatre) you’re a no-one. If you’re at the front you know you’ve made it ,indicating the seating in the amphitheatre held a specific social role”
your hard copy
If you are interested in gladiators have a look at
You Wouldn't want to be a Gladiator >
[(Types of gladiator.doc]]
For more on gladiators and animals see


soundbyte from Gladiator-"The Gladiator salute"

Gladiator fighting a "panther" -probably a Caspian Tiger -now extinct

a personal (not me,another guy) view of Pompeii is
with plenty of good photos

Recent Archaeological evidence has revealed that some of the main streets in Pompeii were
ONE WAY Streets !!!
( based on an analysis of the wear from wheel ruts ). How great is that ????
Mention it to get that extra mark in an answer !!!

Note : Herculaneum doesn't have the wear and tear on the roads that Pompeii has.
For 2d
here is some stuff on
Eumachia -the Patroness of the Fuller's

Eumachia: Dedicatory Inscriptions ILS 3785, 6368

Statue and
Despite her sex and humble ancestry, Eumachia became one of the most prominent citizens of the city of
Pompeii. Having inherited a considerable fortune from her father, Lucius Eumachius, who became wealthy
through his brick manufactory, Eumachia married into one of Pompeii’s oldest families, the Numistrii
Frontones. Her money and new social position enabled her to assume the important
public office of priestess and become a patron of the town’s corporation of fullers, the dyers and clothing
cleaners. One of Eumachia’s benefactions was an impressive building on one side of the
Forum of Pompeii, which she and Marcus
Numistrius Fronto, her son, dedicated to Concordia Augusta and Pietas. If this building was erected
when Numistrius was running for the office of duumvir for the year 2/3 CE, this benefaction was perhaps
intended to help gain public support for his election. The function of the building is unknown; it may have
served as a warehouse for the wool and fulling trade or as an auction house. Its doorway is particularly
elegant, faced with fine white marble carved in acanthus leaves reminiscent of
the floral panels of the //Ara Pacis Augustae// in Rome. The excellence of the sculpture and the
building’s resonance with themes of Augustan ideology suggest that the panels were carved in Rome.
Zanker (see Bibliography, p. 97) suggests Eumachia may have been emulating the example of the
empress Livia and her son Tiberius, who built the Porticus Liviae in
Rome and dedicated it to Concordia Augusta in 7 BCE.

ILS 6368 : Inscription on the base of the statue dedicated to Eumachia
found inside the rear ambulatory
of her building in Pompeii.
EVMACHIAE L[uci] F[iliae]
[oti] PVBLI[cae]

ILS 3785 : Dedicatory inscription of Eumachia's building, mounted on a marble tablet over the
side entrance from the Via dell'Abbondanza
Epigraphic image courtesy of John Dobbins, Director,
Pompeii Forum Project




17. Photo of a streetscape in Herculaneum.
for 1b
Source in 2008 HSC –
c) Using Source and your own knowledge, describe the streetscapes in Herculaneum. 4 marks
  • Herculaneum had two main streets parallel and adjacent to each other
  • The “Decumani” was oriented to Rome and the Vias were adjacent
  • The streets were wide for a Roman town
  • The streets were paved with stone
  • Majority of houses were double story villas
  • Streets would have had an atrocious smell because the majority of human waste thrown into the street to
run into the sewer system
  • There is little evidence of carts (as in Pompeii-which was rutted with wear )
  • Houses and shops opened onto the footpaths
  • Verandahs on upper stories opened onto footpaths as shown in Source 2
  • Upstairs on the buildings is where the families lived
  • Shops ,taverns and bars were downstairs
  • Rich villas were decorated with extravagant doorways right on the footpath
  • Stepping stones across the street were common
  • Pedestrian walkways the same as today and paved streets but different materials
  • There were fountains at every corner ,connected to the aqueducts for a fresh water supply
  • Gradient at Herculaneum much steeper than Pompeii ,hence evidence of less stepping stones than at
Pompeii and drainage better .Less prone to floods ,better infrastructure and less people to accommodate

Greek and Egyptian influence in Pompeii
- Greek influence in architecture: Temple of Apollo, 'Doric' temple in the Triangular Forum.
- Themes of statues, vase paintings and mosaics were of Greek mythology.
- Triangular Forum had the shape of the Greek acropolis
- A Greek did the original planning of Pompeii
- Layout of Pompeii and Herculanuem both reflect a Greek style with the patterned and ordered streets
- Statues – copied Greek masterpieces Volumes of Papyri, compromising a collection of works by Philodemus in the first century BC, were found in a Villa in 1787.
These were mostly written in Greek but a few were in Latin.
- The theatre had paintings of actors reflecting a Greek style that was very different to those performances actually performed there.
- Greek columns used in building the temples:
Orders of columns:
Doric: House of silver wedding Pompeii,
- House of tragic poet, Pompeii forum (lower level
- Ionic:
- Upper level of Pompeii forum, columns surrounding temple of Apollo, house of Galba Herculaneum.
- Corinthian:
- Peristyle courtyards in private homes Pompeii, temple Fortuna Augusta.
- The Peristyle courtyards where also of Greek influence. (Peristyle meaning open aired)
- The design of the theatre in Pompeii is of Greek influence because it follows the lay of the land as opposed to the theatre of Herculanuem that is separated structure from the ground it is built on.
- The inclusion of a Palaestra in the baths complexes- following the Greek athletic tradition.

- Various Egyptian and Greek mosaics- e.g. in the house of the fawn a mosaic of the battle of Alexander and Darius
- a replica/remake of the one found at Vergina in Greece.
- Believed to be copy of a painting described by Pliny. Original thought to be painted in the 4th century BC for
King Cassander of Macedon.
- In great detail and depth. Two million pieces of miniscule tesserae.
- Placed to the back of the house. People had to be invited to see it. Importance of paintings and owner of house.
- The philosophic tradition from Greece seen in the villa of the papyri.
- Dependence on Greek paintings
- Imagery do not often reflect everyday life in Pompeii and Herculaneum
- Reflect interest in and admiration of Greek culture
- Mosaics are very expensive and labour intensive.
- Most good mosaics came from Greece.
- Greek culture very influential on Roman mosaics.
- 6th century BC, Greek pebble mosaics. Designed to protect floor from rubbish and food.
- Mosaics were placed were floors were in danger of being soiled. i.e. under tables and entrances
- Mosaics used in gardens to create grottos with images of shells and seaside themes.
- Many mosaics are copies of Greek mosaics
- Standardized
- Appreciated is the shading of features and the new colours
- Greeks made of tesserae, square tiles
- Under paintings for the placement of tiles
- Most Pompeian mosaics were on the floor, in reception rooms and dining rooms
- Pliny the Elder describes famous mosaics. What is good about it?
- Finest mosaics were prefabricated in Greece and brought from traders. Local tilers would imbed the section in the floors
- Most of mosaics were not Pompeian in origin. Were mostly copies of copies of Greek paintings and Greek in origin
- Many depictions of leisure activities were Greek in origin.
Pastimes were common around the Mediterranean.
Cock-fighting mosaic example
- Interest in theatre shown by the depictions of Greek theatre in paintings and mosaics

- Egyptian influence strong possibly because of trade contacts between Alexandria & the Bay of Naples
- House of the Large Fountain is of Eastern/Egyptian design i.e. of birds mosaics
- Temple of Isis the Egyptian goddess...
- There is a mosaic of the Nile, showing hippos, crocodiles, duck as well in one of the houses.
- Interest in Egypt due to recent conquering of Egypt and Egypt as the main source of grain
- ‘Flavour of the month’
- Interest in exotic animals; hippopotamus, cobras, lions, crocodiles. Not many depictions of everyday life.
- Depictions of mythological stories/tales, exotic animals, fish

As for religion:
- Mystery cults: Isis, Dionysus, Mithras
- Cults introduced into Italy with Rome's conquest & brought back by merchants/slaves/soldiers; offered the
promise of resurrection after death
- Greek- Dionysus, Apollo.
- Cult of Isis was brought to Pompeii by Italian merchants via the Aegean
- In Campania, the cult drew worshippers from all levels of society.
- Offered a closer and more emotional bond with god.
- Established before Pompeii became a Roman colony.
- Temple at Pompeii open every day at dawn
- Two services; one at dawn and another in the afternoon
- Egyptian influenced decoration in the Temple.

for your hard copy of this see


19.For 3c ,3d
Modern Archaeology and Reconstruction Issue
Source 4
Photo of modern excavation and reconstruction –
(shown below in sample HSC)
Source 5
…. reconstruction provides us with a means of visualising past environments, allowing us a glimpse of the past that might
otherwise be difficult to appreciate.
Kate Devlin and
Alan Chalmers
University of Bristol
Using the Sources and your own knowledge, assess methods used by archaeologists and/or other
specialists to reconstruct the past at Pompeii and/or Herculaneum.
[About 30 lines – 1 ½ pages]
(Begin with some type of debate ,therefore it will be an assessment)
Methods of reconstructing the past at Pompeii and Herculaneum have developed over time to become
controversial and ethical issues

Debates whether or not to reconstruct are particularly prominent in current times
If an area is dangerous to excavate there has to be some consideration for the safety of the archaeologists themselves
When Fiorelli was active from 1863 he introduced innovations to the science of learning about Pompeii
The hollows in ash he filled with plaster created images of bodies, first allowed us to reconstruct their deaths.However the methods used had flaws (unknown at the time)
The greatest was the shrinkage of the plaster when it dries , distorting the true shape
Fiorelli’s later positioning of the bodies was a reconstruction and open to discussion and interpretations. Like all reconstructions done by Fiorelli and later by Maiuri under the Italian Fascist project images and figures were idealised images that held only a degree of historical “truth” and were politically based.Under Maiuri Pompeii was the showcase of Italian superior culture and his reconstructions would echo this ideology.
Modern attempts at conservation and reconstruction are
being more carefully planned as evidenced by Source 4
Though Francis argues that the conservation and reconstruction
of Pompeii and Herculaneum are now impossible tasks due to half hearted previous attempts and tampering ,new methods are
making it easier for archaeologists to reconstruct what happened
The value of reconstructions as outlined in Source 5 are great but cannot sacrifice the truth
New reconstruction and conservation methods such as the new roofing in source 4 ; the epoxy resin casting used in the Lady of Oplontis and the new Neopolis Project dedicated to minutely record images and archaeological data on an accessible data base computer “will lead to an advancement of archaeological understanding of Pompeii .” Settis
With regard to the Lady of Oplontis the epoxy resin used with that body was see through and allowed all those different scans to be much more effective.
The positioning of the skeleton demonstrated exposure to extreme heat at the time of death (e.g. feet pulled back). First x-ray done of a body from Pompeii. It was cast in resin and brought to Sydney by Estelle Lazer who performed the x-ray.
It marked an innovation as new technology was used. Recent work that meets modern criteria of care and accumulation of data is evidenced in Sarah Bisel’s work on the Herculaneum boatyards.
your hardcopy

here is an up to date article


20. Some students have requested a list of sites .
I mentioned the
Support Document from the Board of Studies
-well here it is :(for my lazy students who couldn't find it even though I told you where it was.....

Section IV – Resources for HSC Core Study: Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii

and Herculaneum

4.1 Core Study: Annotated Resource List

4.1.1 Core study: Selected and annotated resource list

Obviously all new books on this topic could not be included as many may have appeared in the latter part of 2005, after this list
was compiled. The following is a guide only and teachers should use their own judgement in the selection of resources.

Print sources

Allison, PM, Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture, University of California, Los Angeles, 2004
Suitable for teacher reference. This scholarly text has been adapted from her PhD thesis with updated material on functional analysis
of domestic space based on 30 Pompeian houses. An important contribution to recent interpretations of archaeological evidence
at Pompeii.

Amery, C & Curran, B, The Lost World of Pompeii, Frances Lincoln, London, 2002
Beautifully illustrated reference book. Magnificent colour photographs, particularly useful on art. In this text, Amery and Curran of
the World Monuments Fund describe the history of Pompeii from its origins to its destruction. They discuss the impact of the
discoveries made there on art, archaeology and interior design, and explain the continuing conservation work at the site.
Good addition to library.

Archaeology Magazine – a publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
1 May/June 2001 – ‘The Lap of Luxury: Mixing Business with Pleasure in Pompeii’ by J Harris & A Schuster. Relevant to lifestyle, economy, housing, daily life, conservation techniques. Information on excavation of Villa Murecine in 2000, a luxurious commercial resort for Roman businessmen. Main finds include dining rooms with spectacular wall paintings. Details also on Sulpici Archive – records of commercial transactions in nearby Puteoli between AD 26–61
2 July/August 2003 – two articles on Pompeii
(i) ‘Pompeii’s New Past – Pompeii’s Block of Time’, by R Jones, a director of the Anglo-American project involved in the excavation and recording
of an entire city block. Good information on pre-AD 79 history of Pompeii. Includes a useful pictorial feature on problems of conservation. The Anglo-American Project has set up the Pompeii Trust to fund the conservation of the block. See www.pompeiitrust.org
(ii) ‘Voices from the Ashes’, by JA Lobell, also deals with problems of conservation at both Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Bisel, Sara C, The Secrets of Vesuvius, Hodder & Stoughton/Maddison Press, London, 1990
Features the work of Sara Bisel, the physical anthropologist and world specialist on ancient bones. The book is in two parts – the narrative of Petronia, the teenage slave girl (one of the skeletons ‘identified’ by Bisel) and a description of Bisel’s work on the skeletons found on the beachfront at Herculaneum. Very readable text; highly recommended, but also be aware of her critics.

Brennan, B & Lazer, E, Pompeii and Herculaneum, Ancient History Seminars, Sydney, 2005
Written specifically for the new Core, this book follows the syllabus content closely and is particularly strong in the area of Estelle’s own research on the skeletal evidence of Pompeii.

Cameron, K & Lawless, J, Secrets of Vesuvius, Nelson, Melbourne, 2005
Revised from the Pompeiian material from Unlocking the Past, all syllabus Core content is addressed. A CD-ROM accompanies the book,containing photographs and an interview with an Australian expert on Pompeii.

Cooley, A, Pompeii, Duckworth, London, 2003
Lecturer in Classics and Ancient History at Warwick University. An excellent reference particularly on new research and interpretations over time. Political influences and vulcanology dealt with well. Very good for Section 3 of syllabus.

Cooley, A, Pompeii: A Source Book, Routledge, London, 2004
Excellent selection of primary sources for a wide range of aspects of Pompeian life. The initial sections focus on sources which describe the
pre-Roman history and Roman colonisation of Pompeii as well as accounts of the AD 79 eruption, including letters by Pliny the Younger.
The other sources cover themes including leisure, religion, politics and public life, tombs and commercial life. Final section contains extracts from excavation reports from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Connolly, P, Pompeii, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990
Double-page spreads on aspects of Pompeian life. Very well illustrated, especially cross-section diagrams of baths, workshops, houses.Clear and accessible language for middle-lower ability.
A good beginning.

Deiss, JJ, Herculaneum, Italy’s Buried Treasure, J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, 1989
A most detailed teacher reference on Herculaneum. Excellent range of black and white photos. Detailed discussion of all classes of housing,public spaces and contemporary issues. One of the few texts to focus solely on Herculaneum. Can be a bit limited on discussion of more controversial interpretations, eg the mark of the cross on a house wall interpreted as a Christian symbol.

Demovic, M & Hayes, M, Deir el-Medina and Pompeii, Longman, Melbourne, 1996
Accessible language, two-paged introduction to a range of topics on Pompeian life – the eruption, housing, everyday objects, women, gods etc. Written originally for Preliminary students using a range of sources.

Descoeudres, J-P, Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town, Meditarch, Sydney, 1994
Out of print but has useful articles from Australian scholars and archaeologists, eg Allison, Green, Lazer, Rawson, Zarmati. Unfortunate
formatting of text but content good. Both student and teacher reference.

Etienne, R, Pompeii: The Day a City Died, Thames and Hudson, London 1998
Pocket-sized book packed with information on the archaeological excavations, life in Pompeii, occupations, trades, religion, and the roles of women. Lavishly illustrated with wonderful colour plates. Contains a useful Document section with views of authors on Pompeii over time; the problems faced by Pompeii in recent times – issues of restoration, conservation, tourism and pollution. The numerous headings and layout make this a suitable text for students.

Fantham, E et al, ‘The Women of Pompeii’ in Women in the Classical World, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995
A brief chapter with clear information on the lives of women; well organised with subheadings – women of property, women and work, occupying public space, love and money, the limits of archaeology. Contains black and white photographs of some key archaeological material on women,
a few inscriptions and a bibliography. A useful reference for studying the Pompeian, Eumachia or women in general.

Franklin, JL Jr, Pompeis Difficile Est: Studies in the Political Life of Imperial Pompeii, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 2001
An expensive book ($130) but useful for a library or as a teacher reference. Provides all of the inscriptions, together with translations of each,followed by an explanation of what each source tells us. The concluding chapter is particularly useful in summing up the important families, the
political structure and life in Pompeii.

Grant, M, The Art and Life of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Newsweek Books, New York, 1979
Although an old book (by modern standards), can still be found in libraries and some bookstores. Introduction provides a clear overview of
both sites and their history. Contents include a summary of housing and art styles, colour photographs of buildings, key features, statues, wall paintings and artefacts with detailed and informative captions. A most useful book for teachers and students, particularly on art and decoration
of houses.

Hurley, T et al, Antiquity III, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 2005
Chapter 1 specifically addresses the Core syllabus content, with photographs, activities, sample HSC questions, based on sources, both ancient
and modern.

Jacobelli, L, Gladiators at Pompeii, The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, 2003
Jacobelli is an archaeologist with the Superintendency of Pompeii and presents a detailed overview of gladiators – the various types, the spectacles, amphitheatres, revolt of Spartacus, and a vast selection of sources, both archaeological and written. Beautifully illustrated. Useful reference text.

Laurence, R, Roman Pompeii: Space and Society, Routledge, London, 2003
Written by a lecturer in Classics, Reading University. Spatial concerns governing space usage, activities and city organisation. Excellent series of maps showing locations of inns, brothels, workshops, public buildings. Relationship between Pompeii and hinterland; residential and industry.
Excellent teacher reference as an example of new interpretations and research.

Lawless, J, Cameron, K & Young, C, Unlocking the Past, Nelson, Melbourne, 1996
Chapter 14 ‘Pompeii, the Buried City’, originally written for Preliminary, covers the eruption, sources, excavations, interpretations, industries, occupations, housing, religion, conservation. Useful starter.

Lessing, E & Varone, A, Pompeii, Terrail, Paris, 1996
Varone is Vice-Superintendent of Monuments at Pompeii. Wonderful colour photos, sound text, and useful glossary. Text arranged chronologically
and useful on changes post-80 BC. Useful library addition.

Nappo, Salvatore, Pompeii, Weidenfeld, London, 1998
A guide to Pompeii, describing each building in the city. Contains photographs and maps, excellent drawings of houses, streetscapes,
cross-sectional diagrams.

Rice, M & C, Pompeii: The Day a City was Buried, Dorling Kindersley Ltd (Eyewitness series), London, 1998
Designed for junior history students. Colourful presentation on all aspects of Pompeii, including the eruption. Contains excerpts from written sources. Ideal for less academic students.

Sigurdsson, H, Cashdollar, S & Sparks, RSJ, ‘The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79’ in National Geographic Research
(1985, vol 1, no 3, pp 332–87)
The journal article that revealed Sigurdsson’s theories about Vesuvius to the world.

Wallace-Hadrill, A, Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum, Princeton University Press, 1994
Professor of Classics, University of Reading and Director of the British School at Rome. A classic study of housing to illustrate Roman
social life and the influence of the wealthy, the interconnectedness of public and private spheres, family and outsiders, work and leisure.
Excellent teacher reference.

Wilkinson, P, Pompeii: The Last Day, BBC Books, London, 2003
Accompanied the 2003 BBC documentary. Sound coverage of eruption, archaeological excavations, public and private buildings and a ‘tour of the town’. Excellent colour photos. Use other resources as well, as he tends to draw firm conclusions based on rather flimsy evidence at times.

Zanker, P, Pompeii: Public and Private Life, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2001
Zanker is Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Munich and Director of the German Archaeological Institute in Rome. This is an excellent teacher reference. Provides detailed information on housing, temples, architectural forms and town amenities such as baths and fountains. Covers Pompeii’s historical development including the influence of elite families. Examines issues relating to the use of private and public space.

Zarmati, L, Pompeii and Herculaneum, Heinemann, Melbourne, 2005
Written specifically for the Core, it addresses the syllabus content, is well illustrated, has straightforward text and a web-link:


The First Pompeii (1 hr) (SBS) 25/7/04
Covers early history of Pompeii. Good for non-examinable section
The Last Days of Pompeii, movie, 1934 (black and white starring Preston Foster)
Lost Treasures of the Ancient World: Pompeii (49 mins) Foxtel, 21/05/2002
Pompeii: The Last Day (1 hr) BBC, 2003
Private Lives of Pompeii (1 hr) ABC, 26/10/2003
60 Minutes segment on Pompeii – issue of custodianship. Screened 30/05/2004
Vesuvius: Deadly Fury, Discovery
Pompeii: Buried Alive (50 mins) A & E Television Networks, 1995
The Edge of Vesuvius, National Geographic


This is only a small selection that is available. Students need to use websites critically.

The Stanford University ‘Pompeii Archaeological Research Project: Porta Stabia’ (PARP:PS) beginning in 2005 aims to uncover the structural and occupational history of the SE corner of Insula VIII.7, from its earliest origins through to AD 79. Aim of the project is to produce a complete archaeological analysis and assessment of the shops, workshops, inns, and houses at VIII.7.1–15.

ABC Online
Go to website address: www.abc.gov.au/ and enter ‘Pompeii’ for a list of recent ABC radio programs on various aspects of Pompeii.

BBC resources

The BBC History site offers an excellent range of links and articles by noted scholars, including Wallace-Hadrill and Salvatore Nappo.
Topics include: Pompeii – Portents of Disaster; Discovery and Excavation; Pompeii Art and Architecture Gallery; Social Pecking Order in the Roman World; Work and Play in Everyday Pompeii; Pompeii Today.

Perseus site

www.perseus.tufts.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html (and enter ‘Pompeii’)
This excellent classics website contains a wealth of images of Pompeii (249 listed) and other resources.

Pompeii image data bank
A photo gallery containing 242 pictures.

Virtual tour of Pompeii

A reputable educational website with online resources from some of the world’s great museums, libraries, cultural institutions, and universities.
In this lesson, students take a virtual field trip to the ruins of Pompeii to learn about everyday life in Roman times, then create a travelogue to attract visitors to the site and write an account of their field trip. Includes lesson plans for teachers and links to Perseus, Pompeii Forum
Project and others.

Virtual Tour

Very useful site containing self-guided tour of Pompeii with links, questions and activities for students.

Timeline of discovery and excavation

Contains detailed timeline of the discovery and excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum from 1503 to the present.

Anglo-American Project in Pompeii
From the Bradford (University) Pompeii Research Laboratory. Information on excavations carried out on one city block in Pompeii.
Also details of the project’s field school, where paying students can spend the summer excavating under supervision.

An interactive dig site in which archaeologists working on the Anglo-American Project (2001–3) describe their excavation, conservation, etc
work on the site/project. Features Jaye Pont, the Australian ceramics expert.

British School of Rome Project

Contains the findings of the BSR Project (British School of Rome – Andrew Wallace-Hadrill) which has conducted a detailed investigation of a small slice of the city, namely insula 1.9 to see what light it can shed on the city, its history and its life.

This 1996 project run by the University of Virginia focuses on the Forum in Pompeii.

Gladiator: Dressed to Kill

Although not directly on Pompeii, a bit of fun! Students will enjoy this game which requires them to ‘Dress a gladiator for battle in the Roman
arena of death. Your choice of weapons and armour will decide whether or not he is victorious. Will the emperor grant your gladiator his freedom,
or will he fight badly and lose his honour, or even his life?’

A good selection of photographs of the city, but with only brief captions.

New Finds at Herculaneum
Short article from the journal Archaeology telling of the finding in February 2000 of 48 more victims of Vesuvius.

Philodemus Project
Details the work of modern conservators and scholars on the 1500 papyri rolls recovered from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum.

The History of Plumbing: Pompeii and Herculaneum
Interesting, short article on the water supply, baths and plumbing in general.

Pompeii : A Lost City Revealed
The latest news and pictures of Pompeii and Herculaneum, from Discovery Online.


21. Here are some past papers
2006 HSC

Section 1 Core –
“Cities of Vesuvius -Pompeii and Herculaneum

Source 1
Not cleared – quote - (to be described later)

a) Using Source 1: (a) What event is described in Source 1?
1 line 1 mark
b) List TWO effects that this event had on the people. 2 marks

Source2- photo of a food bar in Pompeii
From The Secrets of Vesuvius: Unlocking Pompeii & Herculaneum, Cameron & Lawless, Nelson Learning – 3 –

c) Using Source 2 explain how food was prepared and distributed in Pompeii.
13 lines - ½page 4 marks

Question 2 Source 3: Plan of the forum of Pompeii

Using Source 3, explain the importance of the forum in Pompeii.
1¼ pages 8 marks

Source 4: Modern photo of “Lady of Oplontis”
Question 3 Using Source 4 and your own knowledge, explain how new research methods and technologies have contributed to our understanding of everyday life in Pompeii and Herculaneum.
1½pages 10 marks

2007 HSC

Source 1 (–a poem extract from Florus)

“Campania’s coastal region is the finest, not only in Italy
But in the entire world. Nowhere is the climate gentler.
Spring comes with its flowers twice a year. Nowhere is the soil
Here are the vine clad hills, and the most beautiful of all
Vesuvius. On that coast lie the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii
Source –Florus –Brief History 1.11.3-6
Q1a) In what region is Mt Vesuvius ?
(2 lines left for answer) – 1 mark
b) What features of the region does Flores praise in Source 1?
(3 lines – 2 marks)
c) Source 2( –a photograph of a fountain)
Using Source 2 and your own knowledge, explain the ways in which water was distributed in Pompeii and Herculaneum.
(12 lines –half a page -4 marks)
Source 3 –(a photo of the temple of Isis in Pompeii)
Source4: (photo of Statuette of Fortuna with statuettes of Lares on either side)

Using Sources 3 and 4 and your own knowledge of other sources, describe what the evidence shows about religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum.
(About 28 lines -8 marks)
Source 5 – Photo unavailable – to be advised
From - Christopher Charles Parslow, Rediscovering Antiquity, Karl Weber and the Excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii and Stabiae, 1996, Cambridge University Press
Source 6: modern photo of 1993 tunnel excavation under Herculaneum.

Using Sources 5 and 6 and your own knowledge, assess the different methods used by archaeologists over time to investigate the sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
(1½ pages -10 marks)
2008 HSC
Question 1. 7 marks total
Source 1
“At the same time, an unbelievable quantity of ash was blown out, covering land, sea and all of the sky. Not surprisingly it did a great deal of damage to men, farms and cattle. It destroyed all fish and birds and in addition, it buried two whole cities, Herculaneum and…Pompeii…..the whole cloud of dust was so great that some of it reached Africa, Syria and Egypt; it also reached Rome, filling the sky above it and darkening the sun.”
Dio Cassio 66.23
a) What is described in Source 1 [2 lines for answer] 1 mark
b) Give TWO examples from Source 1 that indicate this was a major event.
[3 lines] 2 marks

Source 2- photo of a streetscape in Herculaneum.
Herculaneum Street scene

This is the closest I could get to the one in the paper. The original had no people and showed more roof and road.

c) Using Source 2 and your own knowledge, describe the streetscapes in Herculaneum.
[12 lines] 4 marks
Question 2 8 marks
Source 3 -Inscriptions from Pompeii
The Gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and awnings. Good fortune to all Neronian games.

Gaius Quinctius Valgus ,son of Gaius and Marcus Porcius ,son of Marcus , quinquennial duumvirs ,for the honour of the colony ,saw to the construction of the amphitheatre at their own expense and gave the area to the colonists in perpetuity.

Question 2. 8 marks
Using Source 3 and your own knowledge, explain the importance of the amphitheatre in Pompeiian society.
[30 lines – a full page of space]

Question 3. 10 marks
Source 4


This is not the picture in the paper. I found two that have aspects of the original. It was similar with no photographic equipment and more focus on the mosaic tile floor. The round column was not visible [in the real picture] but quite a few wooden poles were arranged in a specific pattern.

This extra photo I found has the temporary roofing of the original.
Source 5
…. reconstruction provides us with a means of visualising past environments, allowing us a glimpse of the past that might otherwise be difficult to appreciate.

Kate Devlin and
Alan Chalmers
University of Bristol

Using Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge, assess methods used by archaeologists and/or other specialists to reconstruct the past at Pompeii and/or Herculaneum.

[ about 40 lines - 1 ½ pages] 10 marks

The program looks at gladiators in general and uses evidence from Pompeii and elsewhere.

For feedback on Stage 1 exam :
Trial exam feedback

April 2009 Core –Pompeii
Q1=7 marks
Q1 a
Source 1 – Quote from Pliny the Younger
What is described in source 1 – 1 mark
· The eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD
· The person mentioned is Pliny the Elder
· (Eruptions of volcanoes had never been described before –all large eruptions have thus been subsequently named “Plinian”)
Q1 b
List two dangers faced by the people of Pompeii in the event described in source 1 – 2 marks
· Earthquakes
· A shower of hot ash and pumice
· Building collapse ,being crushed by building rubble or buried alive
· Pyroclastic flow
Q1 c
Source 2 –Quote from Tacitus
Describe leisure activities in Pompeii- 4 marks
· This is worth only 4 marks , so don’t write a huge essay
· Address the source directly-“This is a quote from the Roman Historian Tacitus written in the late 1st C AD….
· The incident referred to was a riot in the Pompeian amphitheatre in 59 AD that resulted in a 10 year ban on gladiatorial contests in Pompeii by order from the Roman authorities
· Then make a general introductory statement “Leisure was an very important part of life for all parts of Roman society …”
· The Games, paid for by prospective politicians, included animal fights and gladiatorial combats between trained fighters and sometimes criminals and prisoners.
· Chariot racing may have taken place in the amphitheatre which could house 20,000 spectators as there as no circus
in Pompeii
· Palaestra or Gymnasium , near the baths for wrestling and exercising
· For dining there were many “fast food” restaurants
· Taverns , inns and brothels
· Theatre for drama e.g. Odeon
· Eating ,drinking ,gambling esp. around Forum ,the CBD
but also social centre
· Fine food –fresh country farm produce and seafood.
Many exclusive fishfarms with many exotic and expensive varieties raised. ( See novel Pompeii )
· Most exclusive restaurant ,near amphitheatre and Palaestra
· Pompeii was home of the famous garum fish sauce
· Location of Pompeii – resort type town on coast, for wealthy Romans.
· Evidence of empty houses –either from earthquake in 62 AD or deliberately for “weekenders”
· Evidence of popular leisure activities –archaeological remains of buildings as well as frescoes, statues, paintings and pottery showing various scenes
Q2 8 marks
For 1b
Source 3 – photo of street scene in Pompeii
Describe the plan and streetscape of Pompeii
· Address the Source directly –“This is a photo of a street in Pompeii……”
· Pompeii has been estimated by scholars to be about 66 hectares ,with about 22 still unexcavated
· It is located on the coast in the Campanian district of Italy, south of Rome and near the “mountain” of Vesuvius
· Then describe the city …“The city of Pompeii was divided into 9 regiones by Fiorelli and further subdivided into blocks known as insulae...”
· Then list or describe your facts or information …….
( It is not necessary to mention ALL of the following……)
· E.g. “The city was surrounded by a large defensive wall……
· The entrance was from a series of 8 major gates, named after the town or direction the road took e.g.
· Porta di Capua – Compass direction Due North – 12 o’clock
· Porta di Nola – North North East 1 o’clock
· Porta di Sarno-North East 2 o’clock
· Porta di Nuceria-Due East 3 o’clock
· Porta di Stabiae-South East 4 o’clock
· Porta di Marina –South West 7 o’clock

· Porta di Herculaneum Due West 9 o’clock
· Porta di Vesuvius North West 10 o’clock
· Insulae were city blocks with 1-12 dwellings
· These blocks or insulae were divided by long roads that criss crossed the city in a south western and north western direction.
· Roads leading out of the city were lined with shrines and tombs of citizens of Pompeii.
· Leading into the city were aqueducts, carrying water from higher regions to feed the all the cities of the Roman world.
· The main street the Via dell Abbondanza (Street of Plenty or Abundance) connected the forum, basilica, temples, amphitheatres, palaestras, theatres, tombs, thermae (fast food restaurants as seen in photo) vegetable markets and Macellum (Meat markets) .
· Main axial roads were called Decumani and side streets Cardini
· A forum (150 m x 50 m) was like a modern day CBD –central business district with the key sections of the government and legal system e.g. basilicae –law courts and latrine –toilets.
· There were two fora – both popular and busy
· Temples – esp. Capitoline Triad
· The markets, stalls and shops lined the streets and sold a range of goods and materials
· The Fullers had a large and prominent warehouse and exchange specialized in fabrics like Wool and Felt .It was built and dedicated by Eumachia ,a wealthy patron .Shows the importance of this industry
· Majority of houses were double story villas.
· Streets would have had an atrocious smell because the majority of human waste thrown into the street to run into the sewer system. The town of Pompeii did not drain very well.
· Pompeian roads were rutted with wear and the main streets show evidence of being one way
· Stepping stones designed to allow cart access as well as pedestrian crossings across the street were common ( as seen in source ) due to poor drainage
· Pedestrian walkways the same as today and paved streets but different materials
· Houses and shops opened onto the footpaths to maximise business
· Verandahs on upper stories opened onto footpaths.
· Upstairs on the buildings is where the families lived

· Shops ,taverns and bars were downstairs
· Many images of Mercury ,the god of commerce
· Rich villas were decorated with extravagant doorways right on the footpath
· There were fountains at every corner ,connected to the aqueducts for a fresh water supply
For 3c ,3d
Source 4 –photo of body casts of two women –for an exhibition in Melbourne Museum in 2009.
Explain the ethical issues associated with the study and display of human remains founding Pompeii and Herculaneum.
· Need to directly address the sources directly ,identify if possible and assess the significance of given source in big picture
· Some answers too general, specific issues of Pompeii not dealt with
· Need to mention Fiorelli with any discussion of plaster casts
· More emphasis required on ethical issues associated with excavation eg dignity of human remains ,ownership, display and damage
· Some students gave extensive background to other archaeologists but no mention of other problems
· Some very brief answers ,no way issue can be dealt with
· Confusion over Fiorelli ,he originally began the practice of plaster casts ,not the discovery of the bodies
· unscientific treasure hunt before Fiorelli 1860-**1875
· Fiorelli adopted a more scientific approach with uniform numbering and referencing system and use of plaster casts
· stratigraphic approach to digging
· Spinazzola and Maiuri followed ,different emphases
· Conservation issues that need to be acted upon urgently at Pompeii were sadly neglected
· Site is suffering from a "second death".
· After 1970’s concentration on preservation and conservation
· Modern laboratory work studying various data using CSI techniques i.e. pollen, charcoal etc
· Estelle Lazar used CAT scans examining skeletons , population much more varied than thought originally
· Australia /New Zealand Houses in Pompeii project 1977-1986 ,Roger Ling excavated House of Menander
· AAPP Anglo American Project at Pompeii using stratigraphic excavation
· Conservation in situ to prevent further deterioration
· Pompeii Trust related to AAPP want to conserve and publish findings

For Pompeii Quiz (on school site Lisarow Quizzer )

  • Use a real name, not a nickname
  • There are two separate quizzes ,each with 50 questions
  • These questions are either True/False or Multiple Choice
  • You can use books and notes but you only get 60 seconds for each question
  • Our prestige is on the line – the evil class will be attempting this quiz as well.
  • Take a break and do quiz No. 2 another time
  • 10 points for each correct answer