Year 10 Australian History
What was the impact of the Revolution in Russia in 1917 ?

1) Tsarist Russia
Tsar Nicholas II

Until 1917, Russia was ruled by a Tsar .Nicholas II had become Tsar in 1894. He was an absolute autocrat and kept all power in his hands. People who spoke out against the government were sent to prison .Secret police kept a close eye on any Dissidents, many who were arrested and exiled to Siberia or abroad. Rioters were attacked by the Cossacks

To distract criticism, many crimes and problems were blamed on the Jews, who were then severely persecuted in a series of pogroms, In 1905 there had been a Revolution against the rule of the tsar, .In order to keep his position, Nicholas had been forced to accept a Duma (parliament) but nothing really changed. Nicholas kept power and ignored the Duma; if members of the Duma disagreed with him they were sent away or exiled.

Tsar = (also Tzar, Czar, Csar from “Caesar” or Emperor) the absolute ruler of the Russian state up until 1917
Autocrat= all power was in the hands of one person
Dissidents= anyone who disagreed with the government
Siberia = district on the extreme eastern part of Russia, with very severe weather. Conditions were very bad and not all exiles survived
Cossacks = a class of soldiers, mounted cavalry and used brutally as “muscle” against any opponents of the Tsar
Pogroms = orchestrated campaigns of persecutions causing injury, rape, murder and arson, aimed at the Jews. It acted as a “safety valve” for the Russian peasants, allowing them to not see the real problem lay in the system of government. Many thousands of Jewish survivors of these pogroms fled to other nations in Eastern Europe as well as Germany, France, England and in particular, the United States.
Revolution = ordinary people are fed up with their government and demand an immediate change
Duma = Russian parliament, with representatives from a number of parties Many were opposed to each other in their objectives .They ranged from wealthy landowning nobles to socialists who wanted to change society by raising the standards for the working classes and peasants.

2) WWI

In 1914 Germany declared war on Russia and in 1915 Nicholas took personal control of the army. The Russians suffered a series of huge defeats and Nicholas was blamed. While Nicholas was at the Front fighting the war his German born wife Alexandria was left in charge of the country.

She was very much influenced and seemed under the control of the mystic monk Rasputin. People resented his influence and outrageous dissolute behaviour and he was murdered.
The Romanoffs became even more unpopular, and in 1917, with food and fuel shortages at home and the Russian army deserting in mass time was up for the Tsar. People were suffering, high unemployment and poverty was everywhere and people were dying in the streets.

Rasputin = very controversial monk who was regarded by the royal family of Russia as having mystical or holy powers that could save their sickly son, the heir to the throne.
His wild and excessive lifestyle was a huge scandal that cost what respect was left for the royal family.
Romanoffs = also Romanovs .family name of the Tsar.

3) Communism
Karl Marx

Karl Marx (1818-1883) had said that industrialisation had made the middle and upper classes rich but had made the workers slaves. He said that the workers should rebel and take power away from the rich .He believed that nothing should be privately owned and that everything should be commonly owned. This theory is called Communism. In Russia a group known as the Bolsheviks believed the royal family should be overthrown and communism introduced.

Industrialisation= when cities begin a process of social and economic change where a pre-industrial society changes into an industrial one.
Middle classes = merchant and smaller capitalists, professionals such as teachers, lawyers and doctors
Upper classes =wealthy landowners, rich capitalists and nobility
Communism= system where the wealth and resources of a society are shared equally
Bolsheviks= early name for Communists in Russia. The Socialist party in Russia RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic and Labor Party) split between the majority Bolsheviks who wanted a revolutionary path to socialism and the minority Mensheviks who were prepared to work with the Duma with a less radical agenda. Their leader was Vladimir Lenin but he had been forced to leave Russia to avoid being imprisoned. Lenin continued to be leader of the Bolsheviks while in exile, publishing communist leaflets and raising money for their cause. He also spoke against the war.

4) The February Revolution
Vladimir Lenin

In February 1917 people rioted on the streets in Russia. There were widespread food shortages and they were starving. They were joined by soldiers and leftist members of the Duma. Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a new government called the Provisional Government took over. One of their most serious mistakes was trying to keep Russia in the war while the Russian armies were disintegrating; many soldiers just deserted and went home. Many Bolsheviks, including Joseph Stalin believed that the Russian people would not yet support a socialist government and supported the Provisional Government led by Alexander Kerensky who became president of Russia. Enthusiastic workers, soldiers and peasants followed Lenin’s ideas and elected their own councils called Soviets. The Soviets were very quickly as powerful as the government and seemed more decisive.

Abdicate = a ruling monarch leaves power due to lack of support.
Provisional = temporary, until new elections were to be held
Joseph Stalin = extremely ruthless deputy to Lenin, who eventually succeeded him
Soviets = a new type of local council, giving the workers from the city and the rural peasants a say in government for the first time .This combination became the new national symbol after the formation of the Soviet Union.
Hammer and sickle symbol

5) The October revolution

Kerensky had not ended the war as many people had hoped. The slogan “Bread, Land and Peace” seemed irresistible to an exhausted and desperate population. Lenin’s famous quotes "The main enemy is at home" and
"Turn the imperialist war into a civil war “began to take effect. Soldiers who deserted went home with their weapons and began to take land by force from the rich. Law and order seemed to be breaking down. Lenin returned from exile, angry that so many Bolsheviks were supporting the Provisional Government .Joseph Stalin had to decide whether or not to support Lenin’s claim that “All power to the Soviets” meant the end of the Provisional Government. He chose to follow Lenin and on 24th October the Bolsheviks seized the Winter Palace, headquarters of the Provisional Government. In December Lenin signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk which took Russia out of the war. In 1918 the Russian royal family were murdered, on Lenin’s orders, by Bolsheviks –depriving the White Forces of a figurehead.

Imperialist= term relating to the old order and empire, with the wealthy controlling everything and ignoring the peasants and workers
Winter Palace = the former Tsar’s palace in St Petersburg and symbol of rule in Russia.
Brest-Litovsk= by signing this peace treaty Lenin was giving away a lot of Russian territory to the Germans >he thought it meant nothing as he expected a revolution to break out in Germany itself, home of the largest and best organised Socialist Party in the world.

6) Civil War
Joseph Stalin

Many Russians did not support the Bolshevik government and tried to oppose them. The Bolsheviks were known as the “Reds” and those that opposed them were known as the “Whites” .The civil war between them lasted until 1922, despite support for the Whites from Britain, France and America. These nations did not want to see the success of an extreme revolutionary group as they saw threats to their own wealth and property if this movement spread. By 1922 the more ruthless Reds had taken over the whole country. Leon Trotsky led the Red Army to victory but he was later pushed out by Stalin. Lenin and Stalin changed the name of the country to the USSR.
Leon Trotsky

Bolshevik = early name for Communists
Reds = Pro-Communists –from the colour of revolutionary groups prepared to shed their blood for change
Whites = anti-Communists, opposed to Reds. Different groups combined often with competing agendas. They included former Tsarists, and representatives of the wealthy land-owning class as well as regional war-lords
Red Army = nickname for the people’s revolutionary Army, led by Leon Trotsky who believed that there would be an ongoing struggle for a world communist revolution.
USSR= Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, often shortened to Soviet Union. The “Soviets” referred to the revolutionary local and regional councils set up by the Bolsheviks. “Socialist” here means Communist. “Republics” shows that the new state wanted to include all the former parts of the old Tsarist Empire in this new union. This state included the largest state, Russia itself and many other subject nations from Europe in the west (Poland, Moldova and the Baltic States) and Central Europe (Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia, Chechnya, Azerbaijan ) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan etc)

What was the impact of Russian Communism
on the rest of the World?

Karl Marx
Lenin -Propaganda Poster

1) “Marxist Leninism”
A name for the system of government, (also known as Communism) in Russia after 1917. Marx wanted to share the wealth in society with the working class. Lenin was the first leader of the Bolshevik (Communist) party after the 2nd or October Revolution. It was not until 1922 that most of Russia was under Red control after the civil war. One key weapon that won power for the Communists was the Red Terror. As well as creating a climate of fear in Russia , it created in the rest of the world a real fear of the spread of Communist ideas elsewhere ,when people who had wealth and property saw what happened to the propertied classes ,when they lost their assets and even their lives. Refugees from Russia fled to China, Europe and the United States. Their pitiful state and terrible experiences hardened opposition to Bolsheviks and Communists throughout the world.

Red Army Poster

Propaganda poster celebrating the power of the workers.
The leader after Lenin’s death was Josef Stalin.
Marx = a 19th C German writer who was regarded as the “Father of Communism”. Many people who agreed with him were known as Marxists. He saw socialism happening after class struggle and a proletarian (industrial working class) revolution
Lenin= leader of the majority or Bolshevik section of the Russian socialists
Red=nickname for Communists
Red Terror =official policy of the Bolsheviks to win the civil war and subdue the population when possible political opponents were executed in large numbers.

Joseph Stalin

Soviet flag

2) Soviet Union

When Lenin died Stalin took over the party and the nation. He disagreed with Trotsky, another Red leader who wanted a World Socialist Revolution. Stalin eventually had Trotsky and any other possible rivals executed or exiled. To build “Socialism in One Country” he took very brutal measures, and millions of the so called wealthy land-owning classes or prosperous peasants were executed or sent to Gulags (forced labour camps).He pushed the nation into forced Collectivisation, massive projects and rapid Industrialisation. Other tactics he used included mass deportations of whole communities and occasional purges of any possible opponents. A very large part of the economy of the Soviet Union went to military at the expense of consumer items that were seen as unimportant. Propaganda inside and outside the country praised the benefits of the Communist system and the enormous personality cult based around the leader –Joseph Stalin. He is determined to catch up with the West with industry, a strong military and to make the Soviet Union a major power in the world.

Stalin = Leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1953.
Trotsky= former leader of Red army in civil war, exiled and eventually murdered by Stalin’s orders.
World Socialist Revolution= many Marxists believed that eventually in every country the working class would rebel and bring in a socialist revolution. Most socialists thought that this would start in an advanced industrial nation like Germany with a large socialist party.

Socialism in One Country= the policy of making a socialist society in Russia first.
Gulags= forced labour camps which allowed Stalin the huge workforce to undertake enormous engineering and building schemes. Most forced labourers did not survive the ordeal.
Collectivisation= farms were forcibly merged and formerly landless peasants shared the work and profits.
Industrialisation= accelerated construction of factories and power stations to bring the Soviet Union into the modern age and compete with the West.
Deportations = whole races or ethnic groups were moved many miles from their homes for forced labour
Purges = occasional mass executions and jailing any potential threat to Stalin’s power. They included Party members (400,000 in 1933) especially Old Guard revolutionaries, supporters of Trotsky, “Class enemies” such as Kulaks, potential 5th Columnists
(spies for the West) and “ambitious” or suspect Officers of the Red Army .Many were exhibited in “Show Trials“ where they denounced and humiliated themselves .The Red Army lost three of five marshals, 13 of 15 army commanders , eight of nine admirals), 50 of 57 army corps commanders, 154 out of 186 division commanders, 16 of 16 army commissars, and 25 of 28 army corps commissars.
This was just before WWII and the Red Army suffered terribly for this after the Nazi invasion.

Propaganda = extremely biased version of “news” or events that stressed the superiority of the regime
West = the modern industrialised nations of western Europe ,Britain and the United States

3) Socialism in the rest of the world.
World Socialism poster

In nearly every country in the world the working class supported parties known as “Socialist”. Their objectives were to achieve a fairer society. Most Moderate Socialists felt that in working with existing institutions such as parliaments and unions they would achieve the reforms they want through evolution. They are not in favour of the “Bolshevik” or Communist view that society in every nation had to have a revolution, overthrow the old order and new structures, like soviets introduced. What makes it confusing is that often Communists in power prefer to call themselves Socialist. Usually they call themselves “Socialist Republics”

Socialist = usually a party dedicated to reform and helping the poorer members of a community. In the West a moderate party
Fairer society = an objective of socialists when people are not disadvantaged
Moderate Socialists= Labour, Socialist and Menshevik parties
Evolution = a political theory that believed that society will change gradually and normally, using parliament to pass laws
Revolution = theory that to introduce socialism a completely new order must be introduced and the old one done away with.
Soviets = new committees or councils introduced by the Bolsheviks in Russia to give power to working class people

4) Britain and Australia

The British Labour Party and Australian Labor Party (ALP) were supported by the working classes and were successful at different times in forming governments from the beginning of the 20th century. When in government they introduced plans such as pensions and other welfare items for poorer people.
They, like all Left Wing parties want to work with the system. They clearly distance themselves from the extremes of a Communist Party which was regarded with suspicion as being too pro-Soviet and a threat to people’s property and wealth. In both countries the Communist Party is a very small and insignificant group. Right Wing opponents of Labour Parties often try to link them with Communists.

Left Wing =Moderate Socialist or Labour, they want reform
Pro-Soviet= their loyalty and patriotism was suspect as they were seen as putting the interests of the Soviet Union ahead of their own country
Right Wing =anti-socialist or Labour parties, usually conservative who want no change to the system

5) Germany

German politics had both a moderate socialist party (SPD) and an active and
much more extreme Communist Party (KPD)

The SPD were the majority party in the German Reichstag and had to form a government when the Kaiser abdicated at the end of the war .
Thus they were blamed by many ,in particular the extreme nationalists, for the “Stab in the Back” and were branded as the “November Criminals
When after WWI people lost faith with traditional parties the KPD won much support. The wealthy, industrialists and capitalist classes were very much opposed to Communist ideas and the growth of the KPD.
To fight the left they abandoned the centre parties and went far to the right and followed nationalist or later even fascist ideas.

Nazi flag

The Nazi Party branded the SPD German Socialists as enemies of the German people and the KPD as part of International Jewish Bolshevik Conspiracy that was seen as the biggest danger to Germany’s future.

SPD = Socialist Party of Deutschland, a popular moderate German socialist party.
KPD = Kommuniste Party of Deutschland, an extreme German version of the Bolsheviks
Reichstag = German Parliament
Kaiser= German emperor of the 2nd Reich, William II
Stab in the Back= the theory that furious German soldiers were betrayed by socialists and war profiteers while their army was still fighting bravely in France in WWI .This was one of the keys to Hitler’s success, he spread this story to explain away the unexpected loss of WWI
November Criminals= the socialists who were forced by the Allies to sign the armistice and later the very harsh and unpopular peace Treaty of Versailles
Capitalist= business people who risked their money or capital to set up businesses and factories
Nationalist = one of the responses to Communism was to stress the special and unique features of ones country, to the disadvantage of all others.
Fascist = an extreme form of Nationalism, based on Mussolini’s Italian Fascist Party which took power in Italy in 1922. They beat up and imprisoned opponents.
Nazi Party =NSDAP Nationalist Socialist Deutsch Arbeiter (Workers) Party. They were NOT socialist or devoted to workers. Hitler’s ultranationalist and extreme racist party took power in 1933 and immediately outlawed all other opposition parties. They blamed and persecuted Jews and Communists, then later the SDP.
International Jewish Bolshevik Conspiracy= a seemingly confused theory that said the main danger to Germany was a combination
of Communists and Jewish Industrialists who had taken over many other counties and were now hostile to Germany.
Constant repetition by the Propaganda Minister Goebbels made many Germans believe it.

6) France


The Third Republic
The French socialists saw the end of WWI as the end of the bourgeois liberal era and the beginning of a new workers social order, planned economy and the abolition of poverty and a new world order built on the League of Nations to abolish war.
From 1924-1926, the Cartel des Gauches dominated the political scenario.


In December 1920, the French Communist Party was formed. The Socialist Left was divided. A few years later in Italy,the Fascists were in power and in Germany ,the Nazis were growing and threatening. Consequently the divisions in France deepened.As a result ,many movements began that were nationalist conservative or extreme right-wing anti-parliamentary.There were numerous violent demonstrations.

The demonstration on 6 February 1934 led to the formation of the Popular Front.
Le Fronte Populare

The Popular Front was an anti-fascist alliance of Socialists, French Communists
and Radicals.In the 1936 elections ,the re-united Left emerged victorious.Many reforms such as the
40 Hour Week,Collective bargaining,paid holidays etc were introduced by the Popular Front government
headed by Leon Blum.
A famous opposition slogan of the time was "Better Hitler than Blum"

Bourgeois= middle or merchant class regarded by the workers as selfish and greedy
Liberal= political idea that concentrates on individual liberty and equality
League of Nations = organisation formed after WWI designed to prevent wars from breaking out again. Replaced by the UN after WWII.
Cartel des Gauches = (French for Left-wing Coalition) name of the governmental alliance between the Radical-Socialist Party and the socialist SFIO after World War I (1914-18), which lasted until the end of the Popular Front (1936-38).It was very unstable due to opposition from Stalin to working with the bourgeoisie
French Communist Party= SFIC (Section française de l'Internationale Communiste) French Section of the Workers International also known as PCF
(Party of French Communists)
French Socialists = SFIO (Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière) French Section of the Workers International
Nationalist Conservative= right wing opponents of the socialists
Anti-parliamentary= parties opposed to working in parliament
Popular Front= Stalin was so concerned by the growth of nationalists and fascists he reversed his position and allowed foreign Communists to combine with moderate socialists and Bourgeois Radicals to oppose the growing threat from the right
Anti-fascist alliance= another name for the Popular Front
Radicals= Middle Class Liberal Party
40-hour working week= an improvement in workers conditions , restricting the number of hours a worker to 40 a week.
Collective bargaining= a process that allowed unions and employers to respectfully make deals and reach a compromise for hours ,wages or working conditions
Paid holidays= a benefit workers wanted from the employers.

7) Italy


The Italian Workers’ Party became the Italian Socialist Party in 1893 and the PSI became a mainstream political party. By 1912 the party split into the Reformists and the Maximalists led by Benito Mussolini which were affiliated with an international association of left wing parties. After WWI began the PSI was opposed to the war and supported the overthrow of the bourgeoisie. Many members were expelled for supporting nationalist causes such as Syndicalism.
They then became members of Mussolini’s new party, the PNF or Fascist Party. This party staged a “March on Rome” in 1922 and took power. Other parties were banned in 1924. They followed a strong nationalist agenda and became allies of the German Nazis in the Rome-Berlin Axis and eventually the Rome-Berlin -Tokyo Axis which was opposed to the Allies in WWII.

The PSI supported the Bolshevik view in Russia and became the Italian Communist Party. In 1946 became the PCI and the major left wing party in Italy and one of the biggest Communist Parties in the West


PSI = Partito Socialista Italiano Italian Socialist Party
Mainstream = normal political parties
Maximalists = A party which advocated direct or radical action to secure a social or political goal in its entirety. This was the origin of the Fascists.
Benito Mussolini = Former Socialist leader, then split to form Maximalists, then the Fascist Party.
Syndicalism = a type of movement or economic system which aims to modify or replace capitalist societies through action by the working class on the industrial front. For syndicalists, labor unions are the potential means both of overcoming capitalism and of running society fairly in the interests of the majority. Industry and government in a syndicalist society would be run by labor union federations, but it's not absolutely dependent on the state's non-existence.
March on Rome = (Marcia su Roma) was a coup d'état by which Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) came to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia). The march took place from October 27 to October 29, 1922.
Rome-Berlin Axis = political and military alliance between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Sometimes these powers were called the Axis.
Rome-Berlin -Tokyo Axis = the above alliance then included the ultra-militaristic Empire of Japan
Allies = opponents of Germany, Japan and Italy during WWII. They included Britain, The United States ,Canada ,Australia and after the Nazi invasion ,the Soviet Union. Also Resistance and Partisan groups in occupied nations fought against the Axis.

8) Spain
Frente Popular

A victory in 1936 of the Popular Front, an alliance of Socialist and Communist parties over the Right wing parties was so close that the nation was on the brink of a civil war. Civil unrest, assassinations, strikes and violence caused the army to oppose the Republican government.
General Franco emerged as a major opponent to the government .The nation split into pro-government "republicans" and anti government "fascists" as civil war broke out.
Anarchist Groups supporting the Republican government

Republicans (also known as Spanish loyalists) received weapons and volunteers from the Soviet Union, Mexico, the international Socialist movement and the International Brigades. The Republicans ranged from Centrists who supported a moderately capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists

and communists; their power base was primarily secular and urban, but also included landless peasants, and it was particularly strong in industrial regions like Asturias and Catalonia. This faction was called variously the "loyalists" by its supporters, the "Republicans", "the Popular Front" or "the Government" by all parties, and "the Reds" by its enemies.
The Nationalists opposed the separatist movements, but were chiefly anti-communist and their fear of Spain breaking up, as well as Falangists or monarchists. This side was called the "Nationalists", the "rebels", or the "insurgents". Their opponents referred to them as the Fascists or Francoists. Their leaders had a generally wealthier, more conservative, monarchist, landowning background, and they favoured the centralization of state power. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, as well as most Roman Catholic clergy, supported the Nationalists, while Portugal provided logistical support.
International Brigades = volunteers from many countries rushed to defend the legitimate government from Fascist Right wing aggression. This was later described as the “Last Great Cause”. The Republican cause attracted 40, 000 international volunteers in all: 15, 000 French; 5, 000 German; 4, 000 Italian; 3, 000 US; 2, 000 British; and 1, 000 each from Canada, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Scandinavia. The Soviets, who acquired disproportionate political influence as well as Spain's gold reserves, were seldom more than 500 at any time.
Centrists= parties trying to tread the path between the Left and Right in a moderate role. They were abandoned by most people as being ineffective as the situation deteriorated into civil war.
Revolutionary anarchists= combination of the CNT and FAI groups.
CNT (Confederacion Nacional de Trabajo) National Workers Union - anarchist-Syndicalist trade union founded in 1911. The most militant and revolutionary union wanted to organise all workers into one big union. Based itself on the ideas of anarchism and revolutionary syndicalism.
FAI (Federacion Anarquista Iberica) –Iberian Anarchists Federation -a loose federation of anarchist groups in Spain and Portugal formed in 1927. Primary purpose was to combat reformist tendencies in the CNT and maintain its anarchist profile. Also acted as the 'armed wing' of the CNT at the time employers were hiring pistoleros to murder leading CNT members.
The FAI had a theory about the role of a revolutionary organisation, a belief that a minority could, by insurrection, light a spark that would inflame the masses for revolution. They organised risings in January 1932, January 1933 and December 1933 all of which were unsuccessful.

Secular= removal of religious influence from government
Urban = city based
Republicans = Popular Front government supporters
Popular Front = alliance of the left-socialists and communists opposed to the Right Wing and fascists
Nationalists= Right wing opponents to the government as well as foreigners- 60, 000 Italian, 20, 000 Portuguese, and
15, 000 German ‘volunteers’ sent by their governments, plus about 2, 000 French monarchists and Irish Catholics.
Separatist = some regions of Spain, including the Basques and Catalonia preferred self government
Anti-communist = forces of the right opposed to Communist ideas and the Popular Front government in Spain
Falangists= Spanish Fascist Party
Monarchists= supporters of the former Spanish royal family. Wanted a return to constitutional monarchy
Francoists= supporters of Franco-Fascists or Falangists
Roman Catholic clergy= priests and nuns. Suspected by opponents as being too close to the Vatican and not having the interests of Spain as their first priority.

Cold War

Answers to Activity Sheet No.1
1) After WWII and the defeat of Nazi Germany the United States found itself on the opposite side to a hostile Soviet Union
2) Winston Churchill the British Prime Minister declared that an Iron Curtain
had descended on Eastern Europe and the Western Allies faced a new threat from the Communist countries controlled by the Soviet Union and its tyrannical leader, Josef Stalin
3) In 1949 Mao Tse Tung led his forces to take over Mainland China and established the Peoples Republic of China.
4) The defeated Nationalist Forces fled to Taiwan where they established the Republic of China.
5) This government was the only one recognised by the ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ West as the legitimate government of China - completely ignoring the mainland government.
6) In many countries after WWII forces opposed to the Nazis had been helped by the Soviets and established what were known as “Peoples Socialist Republics” which meant they were actually Communist.
7) All Communist countries took the side of Stalin who was bitterly Anti-Capitalist and saw the enemy as the United States or allies of the United States.
8) These included Britain , Australia ; and most of the countries of Western Europe, especially West Germany which directly faced communist East Germany
9) Inside its territory was the divided former capital city of Berlin;
10) This city was cut in two by the Berlin Wall which was erected to stop easterners escaping to the West.
11) Next to the Peoples’ Republic of China was the Communist controlled nation of North Korea which was trying to take over its southern neighbour South Korea .
12) The United Nations voted to send troops to help fight the spread of communism. The Soviet Union was actually absent at the vote or they would have used their veto
13) The war lasted from 1949 to 1953 when a ceasefire; was announced.
14) Despite the addition of over a million troops from China; to help North Korea the war was a long, bitter stalemate.
15) This was an example of the Cold War when the 2 main Super Powers were not actually at war with each other but supported other “clients” in a shooting war.

Note that the answer "Western Europe " was incorrectly labelled on the worksheet as "Eastern Europe"

LABOR PARTY SPLITS of the 20th Century
1. 1916 over Conscription
a) Labor Prime William Morris Hughes and the Pro Conscriptionists leave the Party and join Opposition conservatives to form a new Party –the Nationalist. He and this new party were in power until 1923.
b) Anti-Conscriptionists (including future PM John Curtin) remain in the Labor Party

2. 1931 about the Great Depression.
The Labor Party was split three ways about what to do in this crisis.
a) Jack Lang thought that debts to British should be repudiated (not honoured) .He formed his own Lang Labor Party that was based around his own personality
b) “Red Ted” Theodore –the Labor Treasurer believed in radical ideas known as “proto_keynesian” which took huge decisions based on the Benefit of the Australian economy –and ignoring any other nation. Public works, protection of industry and jobs, price controls and running huge deficits.
c) “Normal” economic policies represented by Prime Minister Scullin. Joseph Lyons left the Labor party and formed the United Australia Party which formed a new government in 1932

3.In 1954 about Communism
a) A large Catholic Anti- Communist group was opposed to Communist influence in unions and the Labor Party. They were labelled the “Groupers” and expelled to form the Democratic Labor Party that supported the Liberal government of Menzies. The DLP lasted until 1974.
b) “Doc” Evatt and the rest of the Traditional ALP remained in opposition until 1972. They were often accused by opponents as being “soft” on communism. His personal stand ,defending the Communists in the High Court was a matter of principle (freedom of speech) but very unpopular with many ALP supporters.

Australia in the
Vietnam War Era
Digger Slouch Hat

Topic 5
Inquiry questions
· How did the Australian government respond to the threat of communism after WWII?
· Why did Australia become involved in the Vietnam War?
· How did various groups respond to Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War?
· What was the impact of the war on Australia and/or neighbouring countries?

1) Australia’s response to the threat of communism in Asia after WWII including:
· Korean War
· ANZUS Treaty
· SEATO Alliance
· Explain the purpose of the treaties Australia contracted during this period

2) Sequence the key events in the response to the threat of communism within Australia including:
· referendum to ban the Communist Party
· the Petrov Affair

3) Outline the key developments in Australia’s response to communism within Australia
· Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War
· explain the reasons for Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War
· differing views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War e.g.:
· supporters of the war
· conscientious objectors
· the moratorium movement

4) Explain the reasons why different groups within Australia supported or opposed Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War
· select appropriate sources that reflect different perspectives about Australia’s involvement
· the impact of the war on Vietnam veterans and families
· assess the impact of the war on Vietnam veterans and families

- Referendum to ban communism
Throughout the world, different cultures have employed different strategies to defend 'freedom'.
In communist countries, 'freedom' has been defended by shooting the individualist thinkers. In America,
' freedom' has defended by blacklisting communists, going to war in Vietnam, bombing countries in the
middle east whilst a few patriots have even taken matters into their own hands by murdering suspected
communist sympathizers.
In Australia in 1951, the Menzies government tried to defend ' freedom' by passing a bill banning Communism.
When the high court ruled the bill unlawful, a referendum was held to ban communism.
However unlike America, no McCarthyism type fever swept the nation and many Australians were against
the referendum not because they were communists but rather because they believed in freedom of choice and
rational thought. Australia voted no.
1) Is the document above showing any bias?
2) What nationality do you think is the author?
3) What evidence did you use to answer Q2?

The 1951 Australian Referendum was held on 22 September 1951. It contained one referendum question:
Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Powers to
deal with Communists and Communism) 1951'?
Source B -Table of referendum results


New South Wales
South Australia
Western Australia
Armed Forces*



Total for Commonwealth
Obtained majority in three States and an overall
minority of 52 082 votes.

1) What states voted FOR the referendum?
2) What states voted AGAINST it?
3) What is the total vote FOR: AGAINST?
4) What are the 2 requirements for a referendum to be passed?
5) Why do you think so many people were opposed to the suggested law change?

Read this passionate article here
September 22 deserves to be celebrated along with the centenary of Federation. On that day in 1951,
defeat of the referendum to ban the Australian Communist Party confirmed that Australia’s temper would
remain democratic. Had the vote gone the other way, the presumption of innocence would have been impaired
and a star chamber installed.
Labor leader Ben Chifley said the Communist Party Dissolution bill “opens the door to the liar, the perjurer and
the pimp to make charges and damn men’s reputations and to do so in secret without having either to
substantiate or prove any charges they might make”.
Robert Gordon Menzies had resisted a ban until disclosure of a Soviet espionage ring in wartime Canberra
caused the United States in mid-1948 to cease sharing classified documents with Australia. This embargo
struck at Britain’s nuclear program which needed both US secrets and Australian test sites. Communism, Menzies
declared, was “high treason”.
After taking office in December 1949, the Liberal-Country Party coalition set out to dissolve the Party and its
affiliated organisations, confiscate its properties and deny communists Commonwealth employment or office
in most unions.
The Act had first to identify communists. Documented membership would not catch the most wanted.
Hence, the government proposed to “declare” people to be communists on the basis of evidence provided by its
security service.
After Menzies made his Second Reading Speech on 27 April 1950, he had to amend accusations about five of
the fifty-three union officials he had named as Reds.
The Act defined a “communist” as anyone who “supports or advocates the objectives, policies, teaching, principles
or practices of communism, as expounded by Marx or Lenin”. Menzies’ reiteration that “No Parliament can
convert a power over Communists into a power over non-Communists” would have been more convincing had
the Act been confined to membership. Instead, “declaration” based on beliefs seemed to “open windows onto
men’s souls”.
The slipperiest slide was in the industrial arena. The public’s prime objection to Communists was their causing
strikes. Thus, every industrial action was labelled Communist.
Menzies had to break the Communist power in trade unions without provoking the labour movement into fearing
that banning the Communists would also ban the right to strike. In a gesture to moderates, the Act outlawed
communist control of employer bodies..
After the Labor-controlled Senate finally allowed the bill to pass on 17 October 1950, two Communist-led unions
briefed deputy Labor leader Dr H. V. Evatt for a challenge in the High Court.
On 9 March 1951, the judges – four of whom were Menzies appointees – ruled six to one that, although the
regulations sought may be valid under the Defence Power, the Cold War did not meet that criterion. In peace
time, laws could prohibit only “specific acts”.
When Menzies sought to amend the Constitution by referendum, his lawyers warned against the “dangers of
being simple”. It was not enough to ask: “Are you in favour of banning the Commos?” The government also
needed the constitutional authority to amend its invalidated Act. The arcaneness of the 300-word amendment
fed suspicions that a “Yes” vote would let a cabal “declare” anyone it did not like.
Menzies gave credence to that concern by allowing himself to be goaded, while the worse for drink, into hinting
that two Labor parliamentarians could easily become “declared” persons.
Newly elected as Federal Labor Leader, Evatt raised the spectre of Belsen-style camps across Australia,
an accusation which Menzies characterised as “wicked”. The Commonwealth War Book, meanwhile, prepared
to concentrate over 1000 communist leaders in camps on the outbreak of the world war that Menzies warned
was less than three years away. The Solicitor-General expected a round-up as soon as the High Court
validated the Dissolution Act.
Evatt buttressed his legal and liberal arguments with attacks on the government’s failure to “put value back
into the pound”. On September 22, the “No” case attracted 50.48 percent, up from 20 percent seven weeks
earlier. The press rekindled speculation that Menzies would resign to lick his wounds on the High Court.
As a poll of the whole people, the 1951 vote was more democratic than those leading to Federation, and the
decision more democratic than our monarchical Constitution.


then open up Excel file to do exercise .


Petrov Affair
Mrs Petrov at the airport

An outstanding site is
It will help you in the next activity

Task:Write a series of diary entries for this period for ONE of :
Vladimir Petrov
Michael Bialoguski
Evdokia Petrov
Doc Evatt
Robert Menzies

see Vietnam Unit

from the Cold War to the Current Period

Australia and the UN
For a good list of terms see

This term we will be looking at :
Australia as a Global citizen
Australia was there at the very inception of the UN and Doc Evatt very much involved in the framing of the

Declarationof Human Rights

For a very good original document ,listing the various theatres of war Australia sent Peacekeepers to and details ,including
maps and flags ,see .
UN Logo

For a list of troublespots see but remember it is highly unlikely you will be asked
for more than one.
Here is an exercise based on who and where :

Also see - with some detail about the formal organisation and
various specialised departments

Individual : Sir John Kerr

A brief biography is at

here is a recent view of Kerr at

a good way to look at him are the range of political cartoons
see a few at

Sir John Kerr letter

Event : The sacking of Gough Whitlam

is a great way of covering all bases ,it makes sure you know what happened
and who were the parties concerned. It asks you to be a foreign journalist based in Australia in 1975.

has a very good timeline and background information .

All images will open in a pop-up window for a range of pictures in

For a good summary of this topic see

One of the best sites with a comprehensive list of other sites is at Trinity College Dismissal Site
and another at Dismissal Site

If you get a chance to see the 1983 Australian mini-series The Dismissal check out
Dramatisation of TheDismissal.
its quite long at 270 minutes but I am sure you can get hold of it locally.

Post-war Prime Minister : Gough Whitlam

for a look at the 1972 election ,a worksheet based on Retro II is

Triumphant Whitlam

Another worksheet ,based on one of our texts ,Australian History and Citizenship, covers briefly the period
and the lead up to the dismissal of Whitlam

For more background see Gough Whitlam site and also Whitlam

If politics is a bit tough ,I found this to help you understand the difference between the Left and the Right

For a look at a Decade see

File: Decade study eg 1960’s

Make Headings:
  • Film
  • Fashion
  • “Swinging Sixties”
  • TV
  • Housing and Appliances
  • Transport
  • Communications

Google each of these, include the sixties with each category
Eg “1960’s films”

soundbyte from movie "Austin Powers Man of Mystery"
  1. List in point form the information you found
  2. mention the site you found for this information
  3. what “good things “about this site allowed you to find information ?
  4. are there any things you did not like about this site ?
  5. after looking at 3 or 4 sites select one that you think is the best for a study of this topic