Term II
Topic 2 Australia in the
Great War 1914-1918

"Empires of 1914" for one of my best ever documents

Triple Entente

Union Jack


Russian Flag

George V

President Poincaire

Tsar Nicholas II

British Empire
French Republic
Russian Empire
St. Petersburg
House of Windsor
The Third French
House of Romanov
Head of
Tsar (or Csar)
King George V
President Raymonde
Tsar –Emperor and
Autocrat of
all the Russias
-Nicholas II
System of Government
Parliamentary Democracy.
All political parties combined
to form a “Union Sacrée”
under Georges Clémenceau,
the “Father of Victory”.
Absolute Autocracy-
absolute rule by the
Tsar , some
concessions to democracy
with the Duma but the
representatives were
mostly wealthy landowners
and capitalists
Main military strengths
Royal Navy.Vast
manpower reserves of the
Empire ,especially India
Nation united to reclaim lost provinces of Alsace Lorraine
lost in 1871.
Vast reserves of manpower.
Most peasants still loyal to
Tsar but not to
senior officers.
Head of government
Prime Minister Asquith
3 ineffective Prime Ministers
till Clémenceau
Tsar took complete control of
government in wartime
Fickleness of electorate ;
many Irish not in favour of fighting “England’s war”
Fickleness of electorate –especially after military setbacks. Much of the war
was fought on completely devastated
French territory.
Vote not given to the vast
majority of population. Duma ineffective and unrepresentative.Widespread poverty
unfair land distribution
Across the world –see
map .
Included Australia, NZ ,
South Africa and India
Indo-China, various North African and sub-Saharan colonies, Madagascar,
some Pacific and West
Indies islands
Subject nations included Baltic
states , Central Asian and far
Eastern republics
Racial elite
White Anglo Saxon Protestants
Predominantly French Catholics
Great Russians
Racial minorities
Irish Catholics
Negligible –some
Germans in
Alsace –Lorraine
Other Slavic races like Ukrainians,
Georgians, Armenians, Turkic Central
Asian nations
End of War
Victorious - took over
some German colonies Africa and New Guinea
and Pacific etc
Victorious – determined
to extract revenge from Germany at Peace Treaty
After November revolutions withdrew
from European war but a civil war
lasted till 1921 and Bolsheviks or
Communists took control.
Central Powers

Kaiser William II

Austrian Emperor

Sultan Abdul Hamid II

Imperial German Flag

Habsburg Coat of Arms

Ottoman Turkey

Second German Reich
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Turkish Empire
Ruling Family
House of Hohenzollern
Habsburg Holy Roman
Ottoman Dynasty of Sultan
Head of State
Kaiser of German Empire
Holy Roman Emperor of
Austria and King of Hungary
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kaiser Wilhelm or William II
Holy Roman Emperor of Austria
and King of Hungary Franz Joseph I
Sultan Abdul Hamid II
System of Government
Essentially a Monarchy with some democratic tendencies for wealthier landowners and with administrative powers given to Chancellor
Autocracy –Elite of German and Hungarians
who shared power and
ruled over all other nationalities
Autocracy.The declining power of the Caliphate was being replaced by a
new nationalistic "Young Turk"
movement of military officers
Main military strengths
Highly trained and efficient army.
Brand new Kriegsmarine (Navy) to challenge
British Navy
Austrian (German) and Hungarian military
elite ruthlessly suppressed
any other nationalities
Strong sense of Islam being surrounded
and dismembered by hostile Christian
neighbours as well as growing
Head of government
Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
Emperor of Austria and King of
Hungary Franz Joseph I
Grand Vizier Mahmud
Şevket Pasha
Not a real democracy as military
took charge as soon as war started. Universal conscription
meant devastating shortages in food production.
Many nations felt oppressed-Poles, especially
Slavs such as Croats, Serbians, Bosnians,
Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes ,and Italians
Inefficient and corrupt rule by
Sultan's government.
Constant loss of territory in Europe
and Asia over past centuries
led to poor morale and a
sense of decline
Some Pacific islands, North East
New Guinea , small African
colonies etc
Nil overseas –land empire of hostile central Europeans
Arab states of the Middle East ,
North Africa , Caucasian and
Central Asian states
Racial elite
Prussian military landowning elite
and wealthy industrialists
German Austrians and Hungarian Magyars
Ethnic Turks
Racial minorities
Some Poles and Czechs and
Slavs such as Croats Serbians, Bosnians as well as Slovaks,Czechs, Slovenes ,Poles, Ruthenes,Ukranians, Rumanians and Italians
Empire consisted of many
Muslim Arabs who wanted
independence as well as hostile
non-Muslim minorities such as
Greeks,Kurds, Jews and
Armenians who resented Turkish
End of War
Blamed for starting war
under Treaty of Versailles.Loss of territory and colonies. Democratic Weimar government
lasts until Hitler in 1933
Dismantled into Austrian and Hungarian states as well as new nations of Poland, Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia
Middle East and
North African States taken by
victorious powers.
genocide of Armenians and
Greeks leaves a nearly totally Turkish homeland of Anatolia.


Boer War1899-1902
Germany opposed Britain's attempt to
defeat the Boers in South Africa
Made Britain think Germany wanted to destroy its empire.
First Moroccan Crisis 1905
Kaiser Wilhelm promised to support the
Sultan of Morocco against France's
attempts to take over the country.
Made France think that Germany wanted to destroy its empire.
'Daily Telegraph' article 1908.
In a newspaper interview, Kaiser Wilhelm
said the English were mad and the
Germans hated them.
This caused great offense in Britain.
Made the British public hate the Germans.
Bosnia crisis- 1908Austria annexed
Bosnia in the Balkans from Turkey.
This annoyed Serbia, which had wanted
to take over the area. Russia wanted to
help Serbia, but had to
back down.
Made Russia determined to support the Serbs.
Dreadnought crisis 1909
Scared by the growing German navy, the British people
demanded that the government build eight of the new
Dreadnought battleships.
Showed that the British thought Germany wanted to challenge the British navy.
Agadir Incident 1911
There was a revolution in Morocco, so
France sent an army to take over.
Kaiser Wilhelm sent the gunship
'Panther', but Britain and France
forced him to back down.
Made Germany determined to stand up to France and Britain
Balkan Wars 1912-1913
Serbia and other countries in the Balkans
conquered most of Turkey's land in
Europe. Serbia became a powerful country,
and said Austria-Hungary was
its next target.
Made Austria-Hungary frightened of Serbia.
Assassination of Austrian Franz Ferdinand
June28 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia
The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary
was shot by Gavrilo Princip, a young Serb terrorist, in Sarajevo in Bosnia
Made Austria-Hungary determined
to destroy Serbia
Task 1
Open up the excel file and

rearrange it to the correct position as shown above.
Then print a hard copy of the completed document and glue it into your books.
For further information on Anglo-German Naval Rivalry
see and
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz

von Tirpitz The architect of the German Naval Expansion..
His beard was famous in Europe.
British Empire

Alsace Lorraine seized by Germany

After defeat by Germany in 1871 France was grimly determined to get
revenge and reclaim Alsace-Lorraine.
She was NOT happy about being no longer the dominant military
power in Europe.

She looked elsewhere for allies and turned to Russia .

Austria Hungary and the Balkans

The Austrian government was not much concerned to punish the crime of Sarajevo.
They wanted to punish a different crime - the crime that Serbia committed by
existing as a free national state.
AJP Taylor "Europe -Grandeur and Decline 1967."

AJP Taylor was a respected but outspoken and controversial historian
Item 6. "The [Serbian] Government considers it its duty as a matter of course to begin
an investigation against all those persons who have participated in the outrage of June
28th (the assassination )and who are in its territory. As far as the cooperation in this
investigation of specially delegated officials of the [Austro-Hungarian] Government is
concerned, this cannot be accepted, as this is a violation of the constitution and of
criminal procedure
Serbian Response to the Ultimatum
25 July 1914

Russia had been humiliated by the fact that her fellow Slavs in Bosnia were
taken over by the ramshackle Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1908 and Russia
did nothing at the time to prevent it.
She also felt she had done very poorly in a war against Japan in 1904-5
and was determined to be much more decisive and much better prepared in a future war.

soundbyte from The Terminator

An Entente or Understanding with France resulted .
(Against Austria and Germany)

Germany's Kaiser William II had allied with the Austro-Hungarian
Hapsburg Empire

A-H was ruled by a German speaking elite but had many other nationalities
who wanted independence

Austria was particularly annoyed with nearby Serbia who was creating trouble
inside Austro-Hungarian territory with their fellow Slavs .

Another complication was Russia's racial links to the Slavs of this area.
The Tsar was determined to not let down his allies .
The alliance between Germany and A-H was known as
the Central Powers as they dominated central Europe.
For a time Italy was included but they
wanted lost territory in A-H of their own.

A new German ally was found in the Ottoman Empire
of Turkey who was alarmed at Russian claims to
Turkish territory
German General von Schlieffen

His secret plan

translation :
"The German Imperial Lightning War Plan
War Plan
1. A quick victory in the West
2. Afterwards settle it in the East
Lightning War - No War on Two Fronts!!!!"

The actual original plan to defeat enemies of either side of Germany.
What does the D stand for? Who are B,L ,F and R ?

(He gave this to me on a restaurant table napkin to see what I thought of it)

If war began with Russia,Germany was frightened of a "Two Front War."

A senior German General ,Count Alfred
von Schlieffen came up with a brilliant plan
that meant first a huge swift blow to France ,
quickly defeating her and knocking her out
of the war.(like they did in 1871)
Then as Russia was expected to take such
a long time to get organised, Germany and
Austria could combine to crush the
inefficient armies of the Tsar.
The Plan - Knockout France

For an excellent view of each nations plans for war see

and the 4 Steps to War

Europe Africa and Middle East in 1914

"An unjust war has been declared on a weak country. The anger in Russia shared fully
by me is enormous. I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure
forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war.
To try and avoid such a calamity as a European war I beg you in the name of our old
friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far.
Telegram Tsar Nicholas to Kaiser Wilhelm
29 July 1914
Nicholas and Wilhelm (William ) were cousins and had been great friends

For simplification of the steps to war seehttp://www.johndclare.net/causes_WWI4.htm and remember to watch your ARSE.
( Apologies to sensitive souls.)
A-Austria Hungary wanted revenge on Serbia.
An ultimatum sent to Serbia was accepted ,with the exception of item 6 .
This was the excuse Austria needed to declare war.
The Germans had already given them a "blank cheque"
(Official OK) to do whatever they wanted

R-Russia mobilises on the 31st July.The Tsar's Army told him he had to
prepare for war with BOTH Austria and Germany ,rather than just Austria
which he wanted to do. This is very serious and very dangerous for both
Germany and Austria.

S-the Schlieffen Plan meant that Germany had to immediately
both mobilise and act decisively to carry out its war aims. 90% of their forces
could knock out France assuming Russia took ages to prepare for a future struggle
E -England had a treaty of Neutrality with Belgium and when Germany
invaded "Little Belgium", War was declared on Germany on 5th August 1914

The Fight Escalates

When War broke out ,the German armies were locked into
their plan ,it involved marching through neutral Belgium and
avoiding very strong French defences.

The attack on "little Belgium" caused outrage in Britain and they joined with
France and Russia -forming a Triple Entente against the Central Powers

Bravo Belgium

British propaganda cartoon showing the German bully threatening the brave little Belgian boy.
Notice the sausages in the German guy's pockets.

Very strong defence by the French and British forces just stopped the German invasion and both huge forces were then unable to progress.

A Stalemate of horrific trench warfare known as the Western Front meant despite unbelievable loss of life on both sides , the situation was basically the same for the next 4 years.
A plan was needed to help the Russians who were also fighting a catastrophic series of battles .
It was designed to attack Germany's supposed weak ally Turkey and then supply Russia with arms and supplies.

'War by Timetable'

In 1969 AJP Taylor published his book War by
Timetable. In it, he argued that railway timetables played
a key part in starting the First World War.
Mobilizing millions of men was a hugely complicated job.
Every country used the railways, and spent years working
out how to get all those soldiers and all their supplies to
where they needed to be - e.g. the Schlieffen Plan took
nine years to devise (1897-1906).
every country had only one Plan
the Russians had
'Plan A', the French 'Plan 17'; and it was too much to
devise another one!
So, when the crisis came - although it didn't fit the
situation that these Plans envisaged - every country
had to go ahead and implement their Plans because they
had no other plans of what to do, and it was too late to
make a new one. The Tsar HAD to order a general
mobilisation, even though he only wanted to mobilize
against Austria. And when, on 1 August, Kaiser Wilhelm
tried to pause the German mobilisation, his generals told
that he couldn't; 11,000 trains were on the move, and war
could not now be stopped.

Task 2 200 words -extended response-

Using any of the information above and your
own knowledge write a response explaining
a) How Australians would view world events in
the period from Federation to 1914 and
b) Why Australians felt they should enlist to
fight for the Mother Country.

Battlefields in Europe

Major Battlefields:(other than Gallipoli mentioned later)
marked in green on maps.

Western Front -between the British and French

against Germany . This theatre was mostly fought on
French and Belgian territory .Australians fought as part
of British Empire forces. Many brave Australians lost
their lives on this terrible front. This theatre lasted till
the end of the war in 1918.

Eastern Front- between the German and Austro-
Hungarian forces against the Tsarist armies of Russia
until Russia collapsed after the revolutions of 1917.
The front lines shifted dramatically in both directions.
The new Communist government signed a treaty at
Brest-Litovsk giving away huge territory for the sake of

Isonzo (Alpine) Front -between Italy and combined
Austrian and German armies. Despite years of horrific
casualties and reverses ,a final Italian victory at Vittorio
Veneto in 1918 resulted in the capture of 300,000
Austrian prisoners and the end for Austria as a military
power.My own grandfather fought in this battle and was

Palestine and Middle East- not illustrated. Australians
formed a very significant part of a British force that
defeated and expelled the Turks from the rest of their
empire in the the Middle East. The Arabs who assisted
the Allies wanted their own independence from Turkish

From http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Naval-operations-in-the-Dardanelles-Campaign
Part 1 = Dardanelles Naval Campaign
19 Feb1915–Jan1916
Where - Dardanelles –Turkey
Result –Ottoman Turkish Victory


British Empire-including Australian and New Zealanders

MEF Mediterranean Expeditionary Force
Ottoman Empire
France France.jpeg


Sir Sackville Carden
-later replaced by
Liman von Sanders-German
senior adviser to Turkish
Sultan on Military De fences
John de Robeck
Kemal Ataturk and a new generation of aggressive Nationalist Military officers known as "Young Turks".
They eventually took over the government from the Sultan.

31 Battleships
1 Battlecruiser Goeben- donated by Germany
3 Battlecruisers
1 Light Cruiser - donated by Germany
24 Cruisers
Various huge minefields and Forts
25 Destroyers
Otherwise unknown
8 Monitors

14 Submarines

50 + Transports


6 Battleships sunk
2 Battleships sunk
3 Battleships
1 Minelayer sunk
1 Battlecruiser

1 Destroyer sunk

8 Submarines lost

Military Dead

The 3D Anzac Experience
check this out -very up to date

The plan -to force clear a route to help Russia

Combined land-sea operation

Part 2 = Gallipoli Land Campaign to remove fortifications,
open up the Black Sea and storm through to Constantinople
the Turkish capital and knock them out of the war.
"Gallipoli the First Day"
- One of the very best sites ,with 3D ,with profiles of
different participants ,with a "Quick Tour", Campaign Overview
with video and audio see

Document Study
from an excellent site Anzacs at Gallipoli:
This is the Official Government Site

Gallipoli Documents Task
You must select ONE Blue or
TWO Red or
THREE Green Document/s
and do the worksheet/s after it .
Blue documents are worth 25 marks
Red and Green documents are worth 20 marks

Print out your answers and glue a hard copy into your books.

1) Why did the Anzacs land at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915? -Reasons for the Expedition


2) Ashmead-Bartlett – The first report in Australia of the landing at Gallipoli -
sent to Australian newspapers

3) Excerpt from Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett's confidential diary concerning military censorship-

4) Australia's official war correspondent Charles Bean – The first report-

5) Letter from the Principal Archive Librarian about purchasing Ashmead-Bartlett's letter to

Prime Minister Asquith -


6)A 'duty clear before us' –the Assault on North Beach and the Sari Bair Range

7) A brief description of the landing- An excerpt from Denis Winter's book,
25 April 1915 - The Inevitable Tragedy

8) “I was able from what I saw of the country to make a map”- Scouting

9) I shall be the first to fall” Hill 60 -21-28 August

10) “Crikey they’re coming on in these parts” The development of the North
Beach Base- October –November 1915 –

11) “Their uniforms were torn, their knees broken” –August The August
offensive in the Sari Blair Range 6-10 August 1915

12) “Thus to leave you, thus to part – the final evacuation

13) Remembering Anzac –where today the site is kept -

Western Front
Some recent studies of The Western Front have supported Australian sources -such
as Comparing Australian and British accounts on Fromelles
An excellent site for a study of the Western Front is at The Western Front in France
and Flanders
It divides the war into 4 phases :

First phase: a war of encounter and movement, in which preconceptions are destroyed
The Battle of Mons and subsidiary actions
23 - 24 August 1914
The Battle of Le Cateau and subsidiary actions
26 August - 1 September 1914
The Battle of the Marne 1914
7 - 10 September 1914
The Battle of the Aisne 1914 and subsidiary actions
12 - 15 September 1914
The Defence of Antwerp
4 - 10 October 1914
The Battle of La Bassee
10 October - 2 November 1914
The Battle of Messines 1914
12 October - 2 November 1914
The Battle of Armentieres
13 October - 2 November 1914
The Battles of Ypres 1914 ("First Ypres")
19 October - 22 November 1914
Second phase: entrenched siege warfare in which British work to French
Winter Operations 1914-1915
23 November 1914 - 6 February 1915
The Battle of Neuve Chapelle and subsidiary actions
10 March - 22 April 1915
The Battles of Ypres 1915 (Second Ypres)
22 April - 25 May 1915
The Battle of Aubers
9 - 10 May 1915
The Battle of Festubert
15 - 25 May 1915
Other actions in Spring 1915
15 June - 9 August 1915
The Battle of Loos and associated actions
25 September - 18 October 1915
Actions in Spring 1916
14 February - 13 June 1916
The Battles of the Somme 1916
1 July - 18 November 1916
Operations on the Ancre
11 January - 13 March 1917
Third phase: entrenched siege warfare in which British begin to play the
leading role
German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line
14 March - 5 April 1917
The Arras Offensive and associated actions
9 April - 16 June 1917
The Battle of Messines 1917 and associated actions
7 June - 11 July 1917
Operation Hush, 1917
The Battles of Ypres 1917 (Third Ypres, or Passchendaele)
31 July - 10 November 1917
The Cambrai Operations and associated actions
20 November - 30 December 1917

Final phase: return to open warfare
The First Battles of the Somme 1918 and associated actions
21 March - 4 July 1918
The Battles of the Lys
9 April - 29 April 1918
The Battle of the Aisne 1918
27 May - 6 June 1918
The Battles of the Marne 1918
20 July - 2 August 1918
The Battle of Amiens and associated actions
8 August - 17 August 1918
The Second Battles of the Somme 1918
21 August - 3 September 1918
The Advance in Flanders
18 August - 6 September 1918
The Second Battles of Arras 1918
26 August - 3 September 1918
The Battles of the Hindenburg Line and associated actions
12 September - 12 October 1918
The Final Advance in Flanders
28 September - 11 November 1918
The Final Advance in Artois
2 October - 11 November 1918
The Final Advance in Picardy
17 October - 11 November 1918
Propaganda Posters - Answer the questions (in full sentences) on the Posters and
Photographs in a WordFile and paste it into your books .
German poster -showing the English Spider

Task 4 - Cartoon Analysis

1) How did the Germans feel about the Entente Cordiale?
2) Compare the way they saw themselves (compared to other nations).
Russian Poster -Brave Russian Cavalryman attacking the Hun

3) What does the poster say about the way Russia thought about their forces ?
4) Why is a Cavalry officer shown in this picture ? What does it show about Russian preparedness for modern warfare ?

US poster- the beast-like Hun ravishing Europe (Belgium) and Civilisation

5) This American poster was drawn until the later years of the war.Why ?
6) How are the Americans told about the German forces? Why ?
Australia - pressure to enlist from the future

7) Australia relied on voluntary enlistment during WWI.
What message is this poster sending to young Australian men?
Conscription No Vote The Blood Vote

8) The Australian Government wanted to introduce Conscription.
To do so they had to hold a referendum.
What side of the debate was this poster representing?
What are the key arguments of this poster?
Who is the Satanic Figure in the background?
Conscription No Vote- Breaking up a family

9) What side of the debate was this poster representing?
What are the key arguments of this poster?
Who authorised this poster ?
Conscription Yes Vote -William Morris Hughes campaigning

10) This photograph shows Prime Minister William Morris Hughes campaigning during the referendum campaign .
His Labor Party was opposed to conscription. How did he stay Prime Minister ?
11) When were the referendums held ? What were the results ?
( you need to provide the different state votes ,total votes and which way each state
voted )
Conscription Yes Vote - The Anti's Creed

12) What side of the debate was this poster representing?
What are the key arguments of this poster?
Who authorised this poster ?
Conscription- Yes Vote- Western Australia feels betrayed

13) How did West Australians feel about the result of the referenda ( plural of referendum) Why ?

An experimental program (for me ) is Mindmap. Check out

Well - that didn't work-any suggestions as to how we can access this ?